Tag Archives: homeschooling

Oh My Word Becky

Oh. My. Word, Becky

Rainy Days

Oh, my word, Becky, it has already been a day and it is only 2 pm.  It has rained all weekend, and that is not a bad thing.  Well, the flooding part is not great, but the rain was much needed.

I love listening to a gentle rain on our metal roof.  The sound makes me want to just stay in bed and snuggle up with a warm cup of chicken broth.  Alas, this was not what my day entailed.

Therapy

We (meaning Hunter and me) had to get going to therapy, this morning.  OT, SLP, and PT is about 35 minutes away, so we had to hustle.  With the rain, it is hard to hustle because, at some points, I could not see the road.

He did really well, in therapy.  I got teary watching him struggle, though.  It is hard for me to think that this is the only life he remembers.  He does not remember being a healthy, busy toddler.  Shaking, compensating for his shaking, that’s what he remembers.

I had to call it a day during PT because he began drooling.  Drooling is a sign that he has overdone it and that his body is fixing to shut down.  Once the drooling starts, the belching begins and then we are done for the day.

I hate this condition.

Coming Home

Heading home, I decided I would stop and get him lunch.  It was already afternoon and he had had a couple of peanut butter power bites, but he was hungry.  I stopped by Burger King and prepared to get him a salad (his choice) but at the last minute, he wanted a burger.

He ate the burger and my fries, on the way home.  I had forgotten his sippy cup so he could not have his juice.  He can’t hold those little packets of juice to his face, squeeze and drink at the same time.  That is just too much for him.

How sad is that?

Once Home

Kids are doing their schoolwork, though one of my children “forgot” that he lied about doing some work, from last week.  Now, I grade everything at the end of the week, except the Bible.  That, I ask where they got too and they tell me.

This particular child stated that XYZ was done, so when I asked him again today (to make his new schedule), he suddenly realized that he lied to me and now he is backtracking in a  big way.

So, he sits, thumbing through his Bible to see where he actually stopped and how big of a lie he decided to tell me.

I can’t even.

Shaving a Cat’s Butt

In the midst of Lie-Gate, I decided that Karole (our cat) needed her butt shaved.  She was getting a bit unruly and since she is older than dirt, she smears on her fur.  I really just wanted to make a safe exit from point A to get point B on the mat without smearing it from here to high heaven.

Have you ever shaved a cat’s butt?  It was not one of my best moments.  I have a kid crying because he needs someone to feed him his applesauce, one kid crying because they lied, one rushing through and washing every dish known to man (I have no idea why), and one jumping up and down because they lost 1 lb…then, there is Karole, her butt, fur flying, and a turd smeared.

Good times.

In the Midst

I received a sad email from my niece, my youngest son’s biological mom.  Broke my heart.  My heart is heavy for one of my nephews.  I am missing my Lady like crazy and her one year anniversary is sneaking up on me.  Plus, there is supper to cook, things to put back on my wall, baseboards to paint, a house to clean, and so on.

For now, I will finish shaving the cat’s butt.  I am having said child reread what he already “read.”  I turned the diffusers on, so my house may be dirty, but it smells good.  I will delegate the paint of the baseboards to Alyssa when she gets home.  There is an email that I will be sending to my niece and prayers that go up for my nephew.

I will wipe the drool, wipe my tears, love my God and trust that His ways are higher than my ways.  There will be no running down the road naked, screaming at the top of my lungs.  Not today, Becky, not today.

Lasagna Soup

Cheeseburger Soup

 

Things You May Not Know About Homeschooling A Child With Dyslexia

Things You May Not Know About Homeschooling A Child With Dyslexia

Things You May Not Know About Homeschooling A Child With Dyslexia

There are things you may not know about homeschooling a child with Dyslexia   Homeschooling a child, with Dyslexia (and other learning disabilities), has been one of the most stressful, difficult, undesirable times of my life.  Dramatic?  Maybe, but it is my truth.

I was ELATED when we found out our child had dyslexia.  I mean, I giggled.  It was such a loud giggle that my child’s therapist thought I was fixing to have some sort of breakdown.  She even patted me, and I got a hearty “bless your heart.”

By the time my child was diagnosed, I had had this child in public preschool, homeschool, back to public school, and then when that crashed and burned, back to homeschooling.  I have homeschooled this child for the majority of his life, but I wanted to see if someone else could figure out what was wrong.

Luckily, our local university does specialized testing that does not cost me an arm and a leg.  Add that to the fact that his therapist (and all of the grad students) were beyond amazing with my child (and with me).

Getting Tested

Getting tested was not a hard thing to do, once we got going.  We first had him tested for Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CapD).  That yielded the result of nothing was wrong, and his hearing was excellent.  No help, no answers.

We started therapy because I thought maybe it was depression or anxiety.  That was another plane flying into a mountain kind of moment.  It yielded no results.  Next, we tried medication for ADHD/ADD to see if that would spark something.  The meds did nothing.

It was an exhaustive list of things that we tried.  There was no amount of anything I could do or that I tried that helped him.  He was falling further and further behind, educationally, mentally, emotionally, and otherwise.

Finally an Answer

Once we got our appointment, at our local university, the therapist said she had to “score” the results.  That was when the back patting began.  I asked her why she was patting my back and had a look of sympathy on her face.  She just smiled that sweet smile and kept on patting.

She said that she could not definitively tell me anything (until the scoring was done), but she knew within 5 minutes that he was SEVERELY dyslexic.

**Cue giggles**

Working Hard

She and the grad students worked really hard with him.  He worked very hard, as well.  They did the Barton system with him, that did help.  He was “well enough” to leave intense therapy.

Since he has been out of therapy, life has been hard.  He is not progressing at an average rate, at all.  He struggles, at times, with even spelling his name.  Spelling, well that is a thing of the past.  I’ve finally yielded and bought him a spelling calculator.

We have the Dragon software, so he can “tell” stories instead of having to write them physically.  This does not help with his grammar, however…I feel like that could be a lost cause.

He does have an insatiable love of reading.  I am incredibly thankful for that aspect of his life.  He may skim over words that he doesn’t know, but he still reads.  He prefers the Encyclopedia on any type of war.

Other Issues

Other issues play into the delay that this child has, but I’m not going to go into them.  I just know that I hold onto a lot of the guilt for how behind he is.  It is not for lack of me holding him to a higher standard or for seeking outside help…it is just a mom’s guilt.

I know that I am not to blame for things his biological mom chose to do, while pregnant.  Logically, I know that, but still…I wanted to be able to fix it.  To make it better.  To help him learn.  To see him thrive.

I almost feel like I’m 1/2 way up the mountain.  I’m not sliding down the mountain, and I’m not going upwards either.  A treadmill…I’m standing on a treadmill, going THROUGH the mountain.

Here’s to all the mama’s going through the mountain.  Cheers.

The More You Know

Test for Dyslexia

Dyslexia: Symptoms and Causes

Results are In

Eleventh-Twelfth Grade

 

Kindergarten (11)

 

 

This is where refining begins.

Kids are trying to figure out what they want to do.

Most kids are working and going to school.

I like to have my kids to a “trade” so to speak.  We don’t really encourage fast food, as a job.  They have done daycare work, retail, construction work, and things like that.  All these things can be counted towards their electives.

Here is a list of electives that your child can take during these last two years:

Apologetics
Comparative Religions
Mythology
Worldview Studies
World Cultures
Bible
Church History
Individual book Bible studies
Old Testament/New Testament Survey
Topical Bible studies
Business-related
Accounting
Advertising
Business Law
Business Management
Business Math
Entrepreneurial Skills
Financial Management
Intro to Economics
Marketing
Office Skills
Communication
Creative Writing
Communication Skills
Journalism
Public Speaking
Research Skills/writing
Speech
Study Skills
Computer
Computer Applications
Desktop Publishing
Home School Legal Defense Association | www.HSLDA.org
Graphic design
Keyboarding/Word Processing
Programming/languages
Web Design
Fine Arts
Architectural Design
Art Appreciation/History
Band
Ceramics
Choir
Dance
Drama/Theatre
Drawing
Film making
Instrumental Music
Jewelry making
Music Appreciation/History
Orchestra
Painting
Photography
Sculpture
Voice
Health
CPR Training
First Aid
Nutrition
Life Skills
Auto Mechanics
Driver’s Ed
Electricity
Financial management
Home management/Home economics (cooking, sewing, etc.)
Industrial Arts
Interior Design
Plumbing
Physical Education
Aerobics
Individual sports
Team sports
Weightlifting
Gymnastics
Rhetoric
Critical Thinking
Debate
Logic
Science-related
Intro to Astronomy
Oceanography
Botany
Meteorology
Geology
Social Sciences
Sociology
Anthropology
Psychology
Other
Archeology
Career Development
Current events
Gardening
Horticulture
Landscaping
Sign Language
US or World Politics

Tenth Grade

Kindergarten (10)

Language Arts

• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text

• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of primary and secondary sources

• Identify the theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development

• Identify in detail a series of events described and the relationships among them

• Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies

• Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts

• Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks

• Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several sources

• Analyze how characters develop and how this advances the theme or plot

• Analyze how a text unfolds a series of events and the connections among them

• Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text

• Analyze how the author’s structural choices, order of events, and use of time create effects, such as tension or surprise

• Analyze a particular point of view or experience reflected in a work of world literature

• Analyze how an author transforms source material from an earlier work by a previous author

• Determine author’s purpose or point of view and how rhetoric is used to advance that purpose or point of view

• Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually

• Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to contribute to the meaning or tone of a text

• Compare the point of view or claims of two or more authors on similar topics

• Identify and evaluate the argument, reasoning, and evidence in a text

• Analyze and compare various accounts of a subject told in different media

• Analyze significant U.S. (or home country) historical and literary documents

• By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency

Speaking and Listening

• Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics

• Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions

• Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions

• Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas

• Integrate into speech preparation diverse sources of information in a variety of

formats

• Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of rhetoric and evidence

• Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence

• Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and

details

• Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking

• Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations

• Adapt speech to a variety of tasks, showing command of formal English

Writing

• Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including

arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics

• Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including

arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics

• Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion

• Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience

• Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting

• Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events

• Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing

• Contribute to collaborative group writing projects

• Conduct short and sustained research projects on a topic through investigation

• Draw and cite evidence from a variety of texts to support analysis

• Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources

• Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism

• Include evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis

• Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences

(including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

English Language Skills

• Show a command of conventions of standard English grammar and usage when

writing or speaking

• Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and

spelling)

• Make effective choices of language for meaning and style when writing or speaking

• Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

Vocabulary

• Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings

• Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words

• Use relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning

• Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, or to find

its pronunciation or part of speech

• Interpret and use figurative language in context

• Distinguish shades of meaning among related words

• Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations

• Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary

Math – Geometry

• Definitions of angle, circle, point, distance, line segment, line, perpendicular and

parallel lines

• Rotations, reflections, and translations of lines in the plane

• Transformations in terms of vertices, sides, angles, circles, lines, parallel lines, line

segments, and perpendicular lines

• Rotations, reflections, and translations of polygons

• Sequence of transformations to carry one figure into another

• Angles and sums of angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal

• Congruence of two figures

• Criteria for triangle congruence

• Proving geometric theorems about lines, angles, and parallelograms

• Geometric constructions and bisections (including digital)

• Similarity

• Pythagorean Theorem and its converse

• Trigonometric ratios in right triangles

• Solving problems with trigonometric ratios in right triangles

• Trigonometry in general triangles

• Similarity of circles

• Elements of circles and relationships between them

• Constructing inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle

• Constructing tangents

• Arc lengths and areas of circle sectors

• Applying theorems about circles

• Deriving equations of parabola, ellipse, hyperbola, and center

• Proving theorems algebraically using coordinates

• Using coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically

• Proving slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines

• Finding the bisecting point on a line segment

• Computing perimeters and areas

• Explaining and using formulas for circumference, circle area, and volume of a

cylinder, sphere, cone, and pyramid

• Cavalieri’s principle

• Shapes of two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional objects

• Geometric concepts in describing objects, modeling situations, and solving design

problems

• Solving real world problems with geometric concepts and formulas

Science – Earth Science

• The universe and its stars

• The sun and its chemical processes

• Stars, their light, brightness, and movement

• Electromagnetic radiation

• Structure of and forces in the solar system

• Movements of objects in the solar system 1

• Patterns of apparent motion of the sun, moon, and stars

• Sun, Earth, and moon relationships

• Moon phases and tides

• Theories of Earth’s origin

• Earth’s history

• Geologic time, rock strata and the fossil record

• Radioactive dating

• Earth systems and their interactions

• Plate tectonics and large-scale interactions

• Structure and properties of Earth

• Minerals, rocks, and soil

• Changes in Earth’s surface

• Role of water in Earth changes

• Ocean features and movement

• Earth’s atmosphere

• Weather and climate

• Changes in climate

• Earth’s natural resources and resource use

• Renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

• Human impact on Earth systems

• Environmental concerns and conservation

Social Science – World History:  The Modern World

• Influences on the development of western political thought

• Glorious Revolution of England

• American Revolution

• French Revolution

• Influences of the revolutions of 1688-1799 on government and individual liberty

• The Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States

• Emergence of Romanticism

• Global changes brought about by European imperialism

• Causes and course of World War I

• Effects of World War I

• Russian Revolution

• Totalitarian governments after World War I

• German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s

• United States isolationism prior to World War II

• Rise of the Nazi party in Germany

• The Holocaust

• Causes and course of World War II

• Consequences of World War II

• International developments after World War II

• Causes, course, and effects of the Cold War

• The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

• The Chinese Civil War and upheavals in China

• Nationalism in the Middle East

• Establishment of Israel

• Collapse of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War

• Work of the UN, SEATO, NATO, and the OAS

• Globalization and the spread of capitalism

• Effects of information, technological, and communications revolutions

• Connectedness and cooperation of countries in the world economy

• Current conflicts in the modern world

• Global issues in the modern world

• Features of increasing globalization

• Revival and maintenance of traditional cultures in the face of globalization

• Purpose, roles, and work of some key international organizations

• Examples of global interdependence and cooperation

HEALTH AND SAFETY

• Gaining, analyzing, and applying health information

• Knowledge about and use of available health services

• Health choices and long-term consequences of choices

• Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health

• Personal health profile and plan

• Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health

• Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health

• Marketing and advertising effects on health behavior

• Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems

• Causes and effects of poor body image

• Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment

• Changes in anatomy during puberty

• Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health

• Reproductive processes; healthy development of fetus

• Consequences of sexual activity

• Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active

• of healthy relationships and dating behaviors

• Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety

• Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention

• Laws relating to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other controlled substances

• Treatment options for drug and other addictions

• Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities

• Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response

• Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other controlled

substances

2

• Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs and such unsafe situations as

date rape, sexually-transmitted disease, and drinking and driving

• Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs

• Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries

• Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs

• Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations

• Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques

• Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control

• Appropriate ways to express emotions

• Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community

• Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying

• Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others

• Getting personal support from family

Ninth Grade

Kindergarten (9)

 

Language Arts

  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
  • Identify the theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development
  • Identify in detail a series of events described and the relationships among them
  • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
  • Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several sources
  • Analyze how characters develop and how this advances the theme or plot
  • Analyze how a text unfolds a series of events and the connections among them
  • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
  • Analyze how the author’s structural choices, order of events, and use of time create specific effects, such as tension or surprise
  • Analyze a particular point of view or experience reflected in a work of world literature
  • Analyze how an author transforms source material from an earlier work by a previous author
  • Determine author’s purpose or point of view and how rhetoric is used to advance that purpose or point of view
  • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
  • Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to contribute to the meaning or tone of a text
  • Compare the point of view or claims of two or more authors on similar topics
  • Identify and evaluate the argument, reasoning, and evidence in a text
  • Analyze and compare various accounts of a subject told in different media
  • Analyze significant U.S. (or home country) historical and literary documents
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
  • Integrate into speech preparation diverse sources of information in a variety of formats
  • Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of rhetoric and evidence
  • Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
  • Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • Adapt speech to a variety of tasks, showing command of formal English
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • Use relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning
  • Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, or to find its pronunciation or part of speech
  • Interpret and use figurative language in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Show a command of conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
  • Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Make effective choices of language for meaning and style when writing or speaking
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
  • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
  • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
  • Conduct short and sustained research projects on a topic through investigation
  • Draw and cite evidence from a variety of texts to support analysis
  • Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
  • Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
  • Include evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

Math – Algebra 1

  • Rational and irrational numbers
  • Quantitative reasoning
  • Real numbers and the real number line
  • Operations with real numbers
  • The distributive property
  • Exponents and powers, including rational, zero, and negative exponents
  • Scientific notations
  • Parts and structure of expressions
  • Interpreting and simplifying expressions, including radical expressions
  • Rewriting expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems
  • Rewriting rational expressions
  • Arithmetic operations on polynomials
  • Polynomial identities
  • Reading and writing equations
  • Solving equations as a process of reasoning
  • Steps in solving equations
  • Equations and inequalities with one variable
  • Using equations to solve problems
  • Interpreting and modeling solutions
  • Rearranging formulas
  • Equations with two variables
  • Linear equations in various forms
  • Quadratic equations
  • Systems of equations
  • Explaining the coordinate graph
  • Graphing coordinates and scatter plots
  • Interpreting linear graphs
  • Graphing linear equations
  • Graphing solutions to linear inequalities
  • Predicting with linear models
  • Graphing systems of equations
  • Slope of a line
  • Using graphs to solve problems
  • Pythagorean Theorem and its converse
  • Reading, writing, and explaining functions
  • Graphing functions
  • Inverse functions

Science – Biology (or Life Science)

  • Origins of life
  • Growth and development of organisms
  • Ecological relationships
  • Cycles of matter and energy flow in organisms and systems
  • Plant structures and functions
  • Plant processes (photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration)
  • Plant behaviors
  • Animal structures and functions
  • Animal behaviors, including social and group behavior
  • Cell structure and function
  • One-cell and multicellular organisms
  • Cell physiology
  • Cell chemistry
  • Diffusion and osmosis
  • Mitosis
  • Interdependent relationships in ecosystems
  • Ecosystem dynamics, functioning, and resilience
  • Cycles of matter and energy transfer in organisms in ecosystems
  • Solar energy in ecosystems
  • Human interactions with the environment
  • Biodiversity and humans
  • Environmental problems and solutions
  • Human body structure, function, and systems
  • Homeostasis and feedback systems
  • Immune responses
  • Human reproduction and development
  • Genetics
  • Natural selection and adaptation
  • Biotechnology and bioethics

Social Science – Global Studies

  • Use and creation of various kinds of maps
  • Identifying physical and human characteristics of a place
  • Major world regions
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of United States and Canada
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Latin America
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Europe and Russia
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Southwest Asia
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of North Africa
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of East Asia and Southeast Asia
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Australia and Oceania
  • Distributions of human populations in each world region
  • Patterns of migration and settlement in each world region
  • How physical geography affects human activity in each world region
  • Adaptations of people to their environments in each world region
  • Independence and nationalist movements in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia
  • 20th century nationalist movements in Southwest Asia and North Africa
  • Patterns of industrialization and trade in the Western hemisphere
  • Revolutions, independence movements, and social changes during the Cold War
  • The spread of capitalism since the end of the Cold War
  • Role of Europe in today’s economy
  • Influence of oil and resource distributions on economies of regions
  • Changes in the economy of contemporary China
  • Persistent economic and social disparities in world regions
  • Persistent cultural conflicts in world regions
  • Varieties of religious beliefs in the contemporary world
  • Human rights issues around the world
  • Other key global issues
  • Influence of social media, TV, and the Internet on social and political movements
  • Features of increasing globalization
  • Revival and maintenance of traditional cultures in the face of globalization
  • Purpose, roles, and work of some key international organizations
  • Examples of global interdependence and cooperation

Eighth Grade

Kindergarten (8)

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, personal hygiene, exercise, stress-management, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health
  • Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • Causes and effects of poor body image
  • Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment
  • Changes in anatomy during puberty
  • Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
  • Possible physical, social, and emotional impacts of decisions regarding sexual behavior
  • Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
  • Characteristics of healthy relationships and dating behaviors
  • Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety
  • Importance of regular medical assessment
  • Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • Ways the body defends itself against germs
  • Communicable, noncommunicable, and hereditary diseases
  • Evaluation of health products
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response
  • Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and unsafe situations
  • Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
  • Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
  • Understand appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Getting personal support from family
  • How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Explain the functions of verbals in general and in specific sentences
  • ŸForm and use verbs in active and passive voice
  • ŸForm and use verbs in indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive moods
  • ŸIdentify and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood
  • ŸIdentify and use simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences
  • ŸUse conventions of English correctly when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • ŸSpell grade-level words correctly
  • ŸChoose verb voice and mood to achieve specific effects
  • ŸVary sentence patterns for meaning, interest, and style when writing; avoid passive constructions
  • Maintain consistency in style and tone when writing
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
  • Cite evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
  • Identify themes or central ideas in a text and analyze their development
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Analyze how incidents or specific dialogue moves a story along
  • Analyze how a text makes connections between individuals, events, or ideas
  • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
  • Describe how a text presents information
  • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
  • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
  • Analyze the structure of a specific part of a text
  • Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and how each structure contributes to meaning and style
  • Analyze the effects of different points of view in a text
  • Determine an author’s point of view and analyze how the author treats conflicting viewpoints
  • Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic
  • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
  • Determine if a filmed or live production of a story is faithful to the text
  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different media to present an idea
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and supporting reasons in a text
  • Analyze whether an author supports a claim with sound reasoning and sufficient evidence
  • Analyze two or more texts that provide conflicting information about the same topic
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
  • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
  • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
  • Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
  • Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
  • Include evidence from literary or informational texts
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • ŸUse relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning
  • ŸUse references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, find pronunciation or its part of speech
  • Interpret and use figurative language in context
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • ŸDistinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
  • Analyze the purpose and motives of information presented in many media and formats
  • Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
  • Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • Show command of formal English language when speaking for a variety of tasks

Math

  • Work with radicals and integer exponents, including fractional exponents
  • Read and write square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations
  • Interpret and write scientific notation to estimate very large or small quantities
  • Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation
  • Analyze, solve, and graph linear equations in one variable with one solution, no solutions, or an infinite number of solutions
  • Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the slope of a graph
  • Analyze, graph, and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations
  • Write and solve real world problems leading to two linear equations
  • Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship from a graph
  • Define slope as vertical change for each unit of horizontal change
  • Graph a line, given its slope and a point on the line
  • Find the slope of a line given its graph
  • Define, evaluate, and compare functions
  • Understand that a function assigns exactly one y-value (dependent variable) to each x-value (independent variable)
  • Express functions algebraically, graphically, verbally, and numerically
  • Know that the equation y = mx + b defines a linear function with a straight line graph
  • Identify and give examples of functions that are not linear
  • Use functions to model relationships between quantities
  • Compare properties of two different functions
  • Show the decimal expansion of a rational number
  • Know that the decimal expansion of a rational number eventually repeats
  • Know that there are numbers that are not rational
  • Compare the size of irrational numbers with rational approximations
  • Find approximate locations of irrational numbers on a number line
  • Estimate the value of irrational number expressions
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems with rational numbers using multiple operations
  • Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data
  • Construct and interpret scatter plots
  • Examine and describe patterns of associations between quantities
  • Use an equation of a linear model to solve bivariate measurement data problems
  • Write and solve equations of linear relationships to make predictions involving bivariate measurement data
  • Display frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table
  • Represent probabilities of compound events with lists, tables, and diagrams
  • Find probabilities of compound events using diagrams, tables, lists, or simulations
  • Apply the multiplication counting principle to situations with a large number of outcomes
  • Understand congruence and similarity of lines, line segments, angles, and figures
  • Show properties of rotations, reflections, and translations of lines, line segments, angles, and parallel lines
  • Describe effects of dilation, translations, rotations, and reflections of two-dimensional figures using coordinate plane
  • Find sums of angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal
  • Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem
  • Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse
  • Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving the Pythagorean Theorem
  • Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find distances between points on a coordinate graph
  • Know and use the formulas for the volume and surface area of cylinders, cones, spheres, and pyramids
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume and surface area of solid figures

Science

  • The universe and its stars
  • Observation of the universe
  • Classification of celestial objects
  • Milky Way and other galaxies
  • The structure of Earth’s solar system
  • Sun, Earth, and moon relationships
  • Motions of bodies in the solar system
  • Patterns of apparent motion of the sun, moon, and stars
  • The tilt of Earth’s axis and its effects
  • Moon phases
  • Tides
  • History of planet Earth
  • Geologic time scale, interpreted from rock strata and the fossil record
  • Renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
  • Environmental concerns and conservation
    • Plant development and reproduction
    • Animal development and reproduction
    • Cell division and growth
    • Structure and function of genes
    • Changes (mutations) to genes
    • Genetic diseases
    • Genetic engineering
    • Variations and adaptations in organisms
    • Natural selection
    • Existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms in Earth’s history
    • Fossils and the fossil record
    • Similarities and differences between organisms today and organisms in the fossil record
    • Evolutionary history of life on Earth
    • Types of forces and force interaction
    • Force and motion
    • Energy and motion
    • Newton’s laws of motion
    • Electric and electromagnetic forces
    • Gravitational force
    • Gravitational forces between objects in the solar system
    • Waves (light, heat, sound), their properties, and transmission
    • Electromagnetic radiation
    • Magnetic fields; Earth’s magnetic fields
    • Transmission of digital signals as wave pulses

Social Science – United States History Through Reconstruction

  • The First Americans
  • Exploring the Americas
  • European colonization of America
  • Colonial life
  • The Mayflower Compact
  • Moves toward independence
  • Founding documents
  • The American Revolution
  • Challenges of the new government
  • Representative government
  • Drafting of the Constitution
  • Federalist Era
  • Jeffersonian Era
  • Louisiana Purchase
  • War of 1812
  • Conflicts between the North and South
  • Slavery
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • Age of Jackson
  • Westward expansion
  • Conflicts with Native Americans
  • Indian Removal Act
  • Manifest Destiny
  • U.S.-Mexican War
  • Gold Rush
  • Compromise of 1850
  • Civil War
  • Reconstruction

Seventh Grade

Kindergarten (7)

Arts

Note about middle school arts curriculum: Middle-level curriculum often includes and offers experiences and study in a variety of areas in the arts. Some examples are:

      • Ÿ Animation
      • Ÿ Architecture
      • Ÿ Casting
      • Ÿ Ceramics
      • Ÿ Choral music
      • Ÿ Computer graphics and applications
      • Ÿ Construction
      • Ÿ Dance or other creative movement
      • Ÿ Digital arts
      • Ÿ Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)
      • Ÿ Drawing
      • Ÿ Film
      • Ÿ Graphic design
      • Ÿ Improvisational music
      • Ÿ Instrumental music
      • Ÿ Metal Sculpture
      • Ÿ Mosaics
      • Ÿ Sculpture
      • Ÿ Textiles and fiber art

In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such topics as:

    • Ÿ Skills of watching, listening, and responding to works of art
    • Ÿ Background and elements of particular art form
    • Ÿ Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms
    • Ÿ Principles of design
    • Ÿ Vocabulary of particular art forms
    • Ÿ Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art
    • Ÿ Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances
    • Ÿ Art history
    • Ÿ Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art form
    • Ÿ Cultural contexts and expressions of art
    • Ÿ Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art
    • Ÿ Generating questions about a work of art
    • Ÿ Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art
    • Ÿ Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art
    • Ÿ Contributions of artists to society
    • Ÿ Careers in art
    • Ÿ Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art
    • Ÿ Fostering of creativity and self-expression
    • Ÿ Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill
    • Ÿ Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques
    • Ÿ Solving design problems
    • Ÿ Use of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art
    • Ÿ Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art
    • Ÿ Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art
    • Ÿ Participation in collaborative creation of works of art
    • Ÿ Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, personal hygiene, exercise, stress-management, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, and avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health
  • Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • Causes and effects of poor body image
  • Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment
  • Changes in anatomy during puberty
  • Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
  • Possible physical, social, and emotional impacts of decisions regarding sexual behavior
  • Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
  • Characteristics of healthy relationships and dating behaviors
  • Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety
  • Importance of regular medical assessment
  • ŸMyths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • Ways the body defends itself against germs
  • Communicable, noncommunicable, and hereditary diseases
  • Evaluation of health products
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response
  • Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and unsafe situations
  • Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
  • Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and illegal drugs
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
  • Understand appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Getting personal support from family
  • How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
  • Analyze ideas and details presented in many media and formats
  • Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
  • Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • Show command of formal English language when speaking for a variety of tasks
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
  • Find and explain one or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development
  • Analyze how a theme or central idea develops throughout the text
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Analyze how elements of a story interact
  • Analyze interactions between/among individuals, events, and ideas in a text
  • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
  • Describe how a text presents information
  • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
  • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
  • Analyze the effect of specific word choices on a text’s meaning and tone
  • Analyze how a particular part of a text fits into the overall structure
  • Analyze how the form or structure of a text contributes to its meaning
  • Analyze how an author develops and contrasts points of view of different characters
  • Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic
  • Compare and contrast a text to its audio, video, or multimedia version
  • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and supporting reasons in a text
  • Analyze whether an author supports a claim with sound reasoning and sufficient evidence
  • Analyze and compare two or more authors’ presentations of the same information
  • Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal and a historical account of the same period
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
  • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Produce effective writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
  • Cite sources for information used in writing
  • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
  • Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
  • Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
  • Include evidence from literary or informational texts
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • Use relationships between words to better understand each word
  • Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, find its pronunciation or its part of speech
  • Interpret and use figurative language in context
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Explain the function of phrases and clauses and their use in specific sentences
  • Use phrases and clauses correctly in a sentence
  • Recognize and correct dangling and misplaced modifiers
  • Identify and use simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences
  • Use conventions of English correctly when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Spell grade-level words correctly
  • Choose precise and concise words when writing or speaking
  • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, interest, and style when writing; avoid passive construction
  • Maintain consistency in style and tone when writing
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

Math

  • Understand the concept and uses of statistics
  • Find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread for a data set
  • Understand and use random sampling to draw inferences about a population
  • Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical distributions
  • Understand the concept of probability of a chance event
  • Express the likelihood of an event occurring with a number between 0 and 1
  • Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data
  • Draw probability models and use them to find probabilities
  • Predict approximate relative frequencies of events
  • Find probabilities of compound events using diagrams, tables, lists, or simulation
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving statistics and probability
  • Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities
  • Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship
  • Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in proportional relationships
  • Use equations to represent proportional relationships
  • Solve multistep ratio and percent problems
  • Analyze proportional relationships to solve real world and mathematical problems
  • Understand and explain addition and subtraction of rational numbers
  • Understand and explain multiplication and division of rational numbers
  • Apply properties of operations with rational numbers
  • Convert rational numbers to decimals
  • Know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in zero or repeats
  • Compute fluently with rational numbers
  • Solve real world problems involving operations with rational numbers
  • Construct triangles from three measures of angles or sides
  • Identify and describe similarity relationships of polygons
  • Interpret and create scale drawings of geometric figures
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems that involve vertical, adjacent, complementary, and supplementary angles
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving angle measure
  • Understand and apply formulas for area and circumference of a circle
  • Understand and apply formulas for area, volume, and surface area
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving area, volume, and surface area of quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, right prisms, and cylinders
  • Describe two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures
    • Apply properties of operations to generate equivalent linear expressions
    • Add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients
    • Use variables to represent unknown quantities
    • Rewrite expressions in different forms in the context of a problem
    • Construct equations to solve real world and mathematical problems
    • Construct inequalities to solve real world and mathematical problems
    • Graph and interpret the solutions sets of inequalities
    • Identify the sequence of operations used in solving an equation
    • Define slope as vertical change for each unit of horizontal change
    • Identify the slope of a line from its graph

Science – Integrated Science

  • Features and interrelationships of Earth’s hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere
  • Fossils and Earth’s history
  • Interactions that shape Earth’s history and future
  • History and elements of plate tectonics
  • Earth composition and energy flow
  • Earth systems interactions
  • Rocks and minerals
  • Weathering and erosion from wind, water, and ice
  • Natural resources
  • Natural hazards
  • Water movements and changes in land surface and under ground
  • Renewable and nonrenewable resources
  • Uneven distribution of Earth’s resources
  • History of natural hazards
  • Geological forces that forecast natural hazards
  • Plant processes (photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration) and their byproducts
  • Chemical reactions in organisms to use food
  • Biodiversity
  • Interdependent relationships among organisms in ecosystems
  • Energy transfer in ecosystems
  • Cycle of matter in ecosystems
  • Disruptions and changes in ecosystems over time
  • Cell structure and function
  • Human body tissues, organs, and systems
  • Health and nutrition
  • Homeostasis in the human body
    • Structure of atoms and molecules
    • Behavior of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases
    • Elements and compounds
    • Periodic Table
    • Physical and chemical changes in matter
    • Chemical reactions; new substances from chemical reactions
    • Energy released or stored from chemical reactions
    • Thermal energy
    • Sound and light
    • Wave behavior
    • Changes in state of matter with variations in temperature or pressure
    • Thermal energy and the transfer of thermal energy

Social Science – World History, Medieval, and Early Modern Times

  • Disintegration of the Roman Empire
  • Byzantine Empire
  • Islamic civilizations and trade
  • African states in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Medieval Chinese and Japanese civilizations
  • Feudal system
  • Growth and spread of Christianity
  • Growth of civilizations in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Causes, course, and effects of religious crusades
  • Spread of bubonic plague
  • Ottoman Empire
  • European voyages to and conquests in the Americas
  • Rise of the Atlantic slave trade
  • Origins, features, and spread of the Renaissance
  • Growth of new ways of spreading information
  • Reformation and Counterreformation
  • Age of Discovery
  • Ideas of the Enlightenment
  • French Revolution
  • Other Revolutions in Europe and the Americas (1775-1848)
  • Rise of Imperialism
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Scientific Revolution
  • Rise of democratic thought and institutions
  • Physical geography of regions and countries during the medieval period
  • Geographic influences on major events in this span of history

Technology

  • Ÿ Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills
  • Ÿ Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools
  • Ÿ Creation of products combining text, images, sound, music, and video
  • Ÿ Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software
  • Ÿ Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data
  • Ÿ Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other collaborative forums
  • Ÿ Gathering weather information and predictions
  • Ÿ Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends
  • Ÿ Use of digital collaboration tools
  • Ÿ Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content
  • Ÿ Use of online interactive tools to communicate with learners from other cultures
  • Ÿ Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media
  • Ÿ Increasing understanding of a local or global issue
  • Ÿ Choosing appropriate digital resources to plan a project or solve a problem
  • Ÿ Choosing appropriate search engines or directories
  • Ÿ Selecting and using appropriate online applications for various purposes
  • Ÿ Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience
  • Ÿ Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions
  • Ÿ Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources
  • Ÿ Following fair use rules
  • Ÿ Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources
  • Ÿ Reporting and sharing of results or solutions
  • Ÿ Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences
  • Ÿ Recognition and avoidance of potential online dangers
  • Ÿ Safe and legal use of online sites and information
  • Ÿ Understanding of privacy issues
  • Ÿ Understanding how data are kept and available publicly
  • Ÿ Understanding safety issues related to sharing personal information online
  • Ÿ Practicing ethical and respectful behavior
  • Ÿ Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment
  • Ÿ Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedure

Sixth Grade

Kindergarten (6)

Art

      • Animation
      • Architecture
      • Casting
      • Ceramics
      • Choral music
      • Computer graphics and applications
      • Construction
      • Dance or other creative movement
      • Digital arts
      • Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)
      • Drawing
      • Film
      • Graphic design
      • Improvisational music
      • Instrumental music
      • Metal Sculpture
      • Mosaics
      • Sculpture
      • Textiles and fiber art

In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such topics as:

    • Skills of watching, listening, and responding to works of art
    • Background and elements of particular art form
    • Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms
    • Principles of design
    • Vocabulary of particular art forms
    • Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art
    • Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances
    • Art history
    • Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art forms
    • Cultural contexts and expressions of art
    • Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art
    • Generating questions about a work of art
    • Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art
    • Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art
    • Contributions of artists to society
    • Careers in art
    • Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art
    • Fostering of creativity and self-expression
    • Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill
    • Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques
    • Solving design problems
    • ŸUse of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art
    • Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art
    • Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art
    • Participation in collaborative creation of works of art
    • Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, personal hygiene, exercise, stress-management, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, and avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Components of a personal health plan
  • Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • Changes in anatomy during puberty
  • ŸRole of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
  • ŸMyths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • ŸWays the body defends itself against germs
  • Communicable, noncommunicable, and hereditary diseases
  • ŸUse, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • ŸRelationship between tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and unsafe situations
  • ŸPreventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Basic understanding of first-aid procedures
  • Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
  • ŸReasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs
  • ŸEnvironmental factors that affect health
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • ŸPractices for responding to emergencies
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
  • Physical, social, and emotional impacts of decisions regarding sexual behavior
  • Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
  • Respect and consideration for all individuals
  • Understand appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Skills for meeting people, making friends, and being a good friend
  • Getting personal support from family
  • How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Interpret information presented in many media and formats
  • Identify an argument, claims, and evidence presented by a speaker
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear diction, appropriate eye contact, and adequate volume when speaking
  • ŸAdd multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • ŸShow command of formal English language when speaking for a variety of tasks
    • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
    • Cite evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
    • Find and explain the theme or central idea of a text and details that support it
    • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
    • Describe how a plot unfolds in a series of episodes
    • Analyze how a key event, idea, or character is developed in a text
    • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
    • Describe how a text presents information
    • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
    • Compare and contrast characters, settings, events, or ideas in a text
    • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
    • Analyze the effect of specific word choices on a text’s meaning and tone
    • Analyze how a particular part of a text fits into the overall structure
    • Describe overall structure of a passage and its effect on the message
    • Compare and contrast the experience of reading a literary passage with viewing or listening to the same text
    • Compare and contrast texts in different genres and forms
    • Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic
    • Describe how an author develops the point of view of a speaker in a text
    • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
    • Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to develop the topic
    • Trace and evaluate the argument and supporting reasons in a text
    • Compare and contrast two authors’ presentations of the same events
    • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
    • Recognize and follow proper usage of pronouns; correct improper usage
    • Form, recognize, and use various verb tenses and appropriate shifts in verb tense
    • Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
    • Spell grade-level words correctly
    • Consult reference materials to check spellings
    • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, interest, and style when writing; avoid passive constructions
    • Maintain consistency in style and tone when writing
    • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
    • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
    • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
    • Use relationships between words to better understand each word
    • Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, find its pronunciation or its part of speech
    • Interpret and use figurative language (similes, metaphors, idioms, adages, proverbs, etc.) and nuances in words
    • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
    • Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
    • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
      • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
      • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
      • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
      • Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
      • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
      • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
      • Use tools, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
      • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
      • Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
      • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
      • Include evidence from literary or informational texts
      • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

Math

  • Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers including decimals
  • Interpret and compute division of fractions by fractions
  • Represent fraction operations with models and equations
  • Find common factors and multiples of whole numbers
  • Understand positive and negative numbers
  • Describe real world uses of positive and negative numbers
  • Compare and order rational numbers on a number line
  • Understand and find absolute values of numbers
  • Identify and explain prime and composite numbers
  • Find and graph positive and negative numbers as ordered pairs in a coordinate plane
  • Solve real world problems with fractions and positive and negative numbers
  • Evaluate positive rational numbers with whole number exponents
  • Read, write, simplify, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers
  • Identify parts of an expression
  • Identify equivalent expressions
  • Read, write, and solve one-variable equations
  • Read, write, represent (on a number line), and solve inequalities
  • Recognize that inequalities have an infinite number of solutions
  • Apply the order of operations and properties to operations to solve equations
  • Develop an understanding of statistical variability
  • Recognize, describe, and formulate statistical questions
  • Interpret and create graphical representations of numerical data
  • Understand that a set of data has a distribution described by its center, spread (or range), and overall shape
  • Summarize and describe numerical data sets
  • Describe ratio relationships between two quantities
  • Understand the concept of unit rate
  • Use models to show and solve rate and ratio problems
  • Use ratio reasoning to solve problems involving unit pricing and constant speed
  • Find and use equivalent ratios to solve problems
  • Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100
  • Solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and percent
  • Convert measurement units when multiplying and dividing quantities
  • Find areas of right triangles, quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing them into rectangles or decomposing them into triangles or other shapes
  • Find volumes of right rectangular prisms (including those with fractional edge lengths) by packing with cubes and applying formulas.
  • Draw polygons in a coordinate plane when given coordinates for vertices
  • Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made of rectangles and triangles
  • Use nets to find surface area of three-dimensional figures
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Science

  • Climate and biomes
  • Ecosystems and ecological communities
  • Human impacts on Earth systems and habitats
  • Water cycles
  • Changes and movement of water
  • Global movements of water
  • Ocean temperatures and currents
  • Role of density and salinity in ocean currents
  • Weather and climate patterns and what influences these
  • Influence of oceans on weather and climate
  • Weather predictions
  • Global climate patterns and changes
  • Biological classification systems
  • ŸStructure and function of living things
  • Cell structures and their functions
  • ŸRelationships of cells, tissues, organs, and systems
  • ŸGrowth and development of organisms
  • ŸSingle-cell and multicellular organisms
  • Sexual and asexual transfer of genetic information to offspring
  • Traits, variations of traits, and inheritance of traits
  • Animal behaviors that increase odds of reproduction
  • Sensory receptors and processes in animals
  • Plant reproduction
  • Food chains and food webs
  • Global temperature trends and effects on organisms
  • Ecosystems and ecological communities
  • Potential and kinetic energy
  • Mechanical energy
  • Simple and complex machines
  • Friction
  • Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Phases of matter and particle motion
  • Density
  • Changes in energy
  • Energy transfer
  • Relationship between temperature and energy

Social Science – From the Eastern Hemisphere to the Renaissance

  • Geographical features of the hemisphere
  • Patterns of settlement in the hemisphere
  • Patterns of movement and migration in the hemisphere
  • Interactions of geography, history, and economics in the hemisphere
  • Mapping a variety of physical and cultural features of regions or countries
  • Detailed study of the geography of one region or country in the hemisphere
  • Social hierarchies in early civilizations
  • Development of political systems in early civilizations
  • Roots of democracy in the classical civilizations
  • Decentralization of political authority in medieval Europe
  • Spread of Christianity and Church in authority in medieval Europe
  • Current political features and issues of regions and countries in the hemisphere
  • Political cooperation in the hemisphere or its regions today
  • Current types of governments throughout the hemisphere
  • Detailed comparison of the current governments of countries in one of the regions
  • Use of resources in the earliest settlements
  • Economies of the river valleys: products and activities
  • Geographical influences on historical events
  • Economic developments in early civilizations
  • Economic interdependence in the hemisphere today
  • Detailed study of the economy of one region or country in the hemisphere
  • Current cultural makeup and features of the regions or the hemisphere
  • ŸCultural contributions of past societies to current societies
  • ŸCultural interactions and issues in the regions of the hemisphere
  • Cultural diffusion in the hemisphere
  • Detailed study of the culture of one region or country in the hemisphere
  • How archaeologists have learned about past cultures and activities
  • First humans in the hemisphere and their ways of life
  • Hunter-gatherer societies
  • Development of tools and use of fire
  • Climate changes and human adaptations
  • Patterns of settlement and movement over time
  • Neolithic Revolution
  • Comparison of the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages
  • Agriculture and domestication of animals
  • The river civilizations: Mesopotamia, Indus River Valley, Yellow River Valley, and the Nile River Valley
  • Major religions and belief systems
  • Lasting influences of various belief systems
  • The classical civilizations
  • Lasting influences of the classical civilizations
  • Comparison of the Chinese and Greco-Roman civilizations
  • The rise and fall of Roman Empire
  • Development of feudalism
  • The Byzantine Empire
  • Spread of Islam
  • The Crusades
  • Afro-Eurasian trade and its effects
  • The Mongol Empire
  • The Middle Ages
  • Spread of the Bubonic Plague
  • The Renaissance (Early Modern Period)
  • Technology and transportation changes
  • Detailed study of the history of one region or country in the hemisphere

Technology

  • Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills
  • Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools
  • Creation of products combining text, images, sound, music, and video
  • Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software
  • Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data
  • Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other collaborative forums
  • Gathering weather information and predictions
  • Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends
  • Use of digital collaboration tools
  • Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content
  • Use of online interactive tools to communicate with learners from other cultures
  • Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media
  • Increasing understanding of a local or global issue
  • Choosing appropriate digital resources to plan a project or solve a problem
  • Choosing appropriate search engines or directories
  • Selecting and using appropriate online applications for various purposes
  • Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience
  • Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions
  • Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources
  • Following fair use rules
  • Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources
  • Reporting and sharing of results or solutions
  • Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences
  • Recognition and avoidance of potential online dangers
  • Safe and legal use of online sites and information
  • ŸUnderstanding of privacy issues
  • Understanding how data are kept and available publicly
  • Understanding safety issues related to sharing personal information online
  • Practicing ethical and respectful behavior
  • Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment
  • Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedures

Fifth Grade

Kindergarten (5)

Arts

  • Describe, create, and perform dance movements
  • Create and perform dance movements, individually and with a partner
  • Understand the physical processes and discipline associated with dance
  • Identify melody, rhythm, harmony, and timbre in musical selections
  • Respond to sounds and sound patterns with body movements
  • Compose, improvise, and perform basic musical patterns
  • Listen to, describe, and respond to a variety of music
  • Read and write patterns with musical notes and rhythmic notation
  • Read, write, and perform diatonic scales
  • Identify some common musical instruments by sight and sound
  • Identify and sing a variety of kinds of music and musical forms
  • Improvise dramatizations of stories or ideas
  • Take part in writing scripts, designing sets, and performing group dramas
  • Create costumes and props for a performance
  • Observe patterns in nature and works of art
  • Identify and describe elements in works of visual art (line, color, texture, shapes/form, space, value [color], etc.)
  • Create original works of visual art in various media and dimensions
  • Express observations, ideas, or feelings through music, drama, or visual art
  • Identify and discuss some well-known works of dance, drama, music, or visual arts and some artists, actors, writers, musicians, choreographers, or composers
  • Describe and analyze a variety of works of art according to their elements
  • Apply evaluative skills to movies and video
  • Learn and use vocabulary of dance, music, drama, and visual arts
  • Describe techniques for a given form of art
  • Compare and contrast two works of art
  • Identify purposes, effects, influences, and historical contributions of art
  • Understand how culture affects art and how art reflects culture
  • Demonstrate appropriate audience skills for live artistic performances
  • Identify and describe careers in the arts

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, exercise, stress-management, personal hygiene, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, and avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Components of a personal health plan
  • Influences of peer, media, family, and cultural pressure on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • ŸIdentification of foods that are sources of nutrient groups
  • Understanding and tracking calorie intake
  • Aerobic and anaerobic exercise (contingent on any physical or other limitations)
  • Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • Harmful viruses, such as the common cold, polio, measles, HPV, and HIV
  • Ways body defends itself against germs
  • Understanding of changes in anatomy during puberty
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Practices for responding to emergencies
  • Identify safe behaviors around strangers
  • Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs
  • Development of self-confidence and self-esteem
  • Respect and consideration for all individuals
  • Healthy ways of getting attention
  • Healthy ways of responding to disrespectful behavior
  • Self-control and appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Skills for meeting people, making friends, and being a good friend
  • ŸGetting personal support from family
  • How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in reading unfamiliar words
  • Read grade-level texts with purpose and understanding
  • Orally read grade-level texts with accuracy, expression, and appropriate rate
  • Confirm and self-correct words during oral reading
  • Identify main topics, ideas, or arguments in grade-level text
  • Explain how details in the text support main ideas
  • Identify evidence in the text to support the author’s message or reader’s responses
  • Describe theme of a literary text
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Compare and contrast characters, settings, events, or ideas from a text
  • Determine meanings and effects of words or phrases as used in a text
  • Describe overall structure of a passage and its effect on the message
  • Describe how chapters, sections, scenes, or stanzas fit together in a text
  • Use features in the text and search tools to locate relevant information
  • Explain connections between people, events, ideas, concepts, or steps in a text
  • Describe how a narrator’s or writer’s point of view influences the text
  • Explain how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning and tone
  • Compare, contrast, and analyze texts in the same genre or on the same topic
  • Find and integrate information from multiple sources to answer a question or solve a problem
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts at grade level independently and with proficiency
  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak clearly and audibly in sensible sentences
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Give and follow directions
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Summarize points made by a speaker
  • Present a spoken report with supporting facts and details
  • Add visual components to a speech to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts
  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak clearly and audibly in sensible sentences
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Give and follow directions
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Ask and answer questions about key details heard in an oral or visual presentation
  • Present a report or tell a story with appropriate facts, relevant details
  • Add visual components to a speech to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts
  • Create audio recordings of stories or poems
  • Write opinion pieces supported with relevant facts and reasons, and a strong conclusion
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces supported with relevant facts and reasons, and a strong conclusion
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including digital tools, to produce and publish writing
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Create written and visual works to summarize and share information
  • Conduct short research topics on a topic through investigation
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences
    • Identify parts of speech and their functions in specific sentences
    • Recognize and use conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections
    • Form, recognize, and use various verb tenses and appropriate shifts in verb tense
    • Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, style, and interest
    • Use conventions of English correctly when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
    • Spell grade-level words correctly
    • Consult reference materials to check spellings
    • Correctly use the English language when speaking, reading, or writing
    • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

Math

  • Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (2/5 + 7/3 = 6/15 + 35/15 = 41/15)
  • ŸSolve word problems with addition and subtraction of fractions or mixed numbers with like and unlike denominators
  • ŸCreate models or equations to represent problems with fractions
  • ŸUnderstand a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator
  • ŸSolve word problems dividing whole numbers leading to fraction or mixed number answers
  • ŸMultiply a fraction by a whole number or a whole number by a fraction
  • Find areas of rectangles with fractional sides by modeling with unit squares
  • ŸInterpret multiplication as scaling (resizing)
  • ŸExplain results of multiplying a number by a fraction greater or less than 1
  • ŸUse all operations to solve world problems with fractions and mixed numbers
  • ŸCompute and explain division of a fraction by a whole number
  • ŸCompute and explain division of a whole number by unit fraction
  • ŸDivide unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions
  • Write and interpret numerical expressions
  • Ÿ Evaluate simple expressions
  • Ÿ Analyze patterns and relationships
  • Ÿ Expand a whole number (2-50) as a product of its prime factors
  • Ÿ Analyze patterns and relationships given two rules
  • Understand the coordinate system and the meanings of the origin, x-axis, x-coordinate, y-axis, and y-coordinate
  • Graph points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems
  • Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties
  • Classify two-dimensional figures into a hierarchy
  • Understand that each place in a number represents 10 times the place to right and one-tenth of the place to the left
  • ŸKnow patterns of zeros when multiplying or dividing a number by powers of 10
  • ŸUse exponents to show powers of 10
  • ŸRead, write, and compare decimals to the thousandths place
  • ŸPerform operations with multi-digit whole numbers
  • ŸPerform operations with decimals to hundredths
  • ŸConvert like measurement units within a given measurement system
  • Use measurement conversions in solving real world problems
  • Use a line plot to display a data set of unit fraction measurements
  • Use operations of fractions to solve problems from displayed data
  • Understand concepts of volume and measuring of volume
  • Relate volume to multiplication and to addition
  • Define and describe a cubic unit
  • Use standard or improvised unit cubes to measure volume
  • Find volume of rectangular prisms by packing the prism with unit cubes
  • Know and apply formulas for the volume of right rectangular prisms
  • Solve real world problems involving volume
  • Find volumes of solid figures that are composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms

Science

  • The universe and its stars
  • Patterns and movements in the solar system
  • Earth’s orbit and rotation and the resulting patterns
  • Earth systems (geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere) and their interactions
  • The role of water in Earth surface processes
  • Rocks and minerals and their classifications
  • Earth’s topography
  • Human impact on Earth systems
  • Interdependent energy relationships in ecosystem
  • Matter and energy flow in organisms for maintenance, growth, and repair
  • Life cycles and energy cycles in ecosystems
  • Forest ecosystems
  • Food chains and food webs
  • ŸHuman impact on Earth and ecosystems
  • Observations and measurements that identify properties of materials
  • Atoms and molecules in matter and their behavior in different states of matter
  • Chemical reactions
  • Law of Conservation of Matter
  • Chemical processes in everyday life
  • Gravitational force on planets

Social Science

  • Understanding that members of a civilization share certain common characteristics, customs, beliefs, and values
  • Development of unique cultures in the early Americas
  • Description of Mayan, Aztec, Incan civilizations
  • Appreciation of the complexity of ancient societies and civilizations
  • Cultural diffusion, including the Columbian Exchange
  • Cultural comparison between regions (now the United States, Canada, Caribbean, and South America) in the past and present
  • Key cultural contributions to United States culture and the world from the other Western Hemisphere regions
  • Current issues faced by two or more Western Hemisphere nations
  • Examples of cultural cooperation among Western Hemisphere nations
  • Development and comparison of varied political systems and their development
  • Foundation documents and basic structures of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and one country in the Caribbean region and one country in South America
  • Ways groups have struggled for equality and civil rights in some of the countries of the hemisphere
  • Ways groups have struggled for sovereignty in some of the countries
  • Multinational cooperative organizations and their functions
  • Some key ideas, symbols, and values of some of the countries
  • Development of different types of economic systems
  • Comparisons of past and present economies in the regions and nations
  • Economic activities past and present
  • Trade in the hemisphere, past and present
  • Major resources, industries, products, and services of countries and regions
  • How and why products are manufactured where they are
  • Interdependence of economies of the regions
  • Geographical features (physical and human) of each of the Western Hemisphere regions
  • How first humans adapted to and modified their environment
  • Patterns of settlement in the regions, past and present
  • Adaptations of people to the physical geography and climate
  • Resources and use of resources in the regions, past and present
  • Locations of explorations in the Western Hemisphere
  • How the geography of the regions affected transportation, communication, and interaction among the people of the regions
  • Drawing maps of patterns of settlement, movement, physical features, products, trade relationships, explorations, plants and animals, etc. in the Western Hemisphere
  • First humans in Western Hemisphere
  • Migration routes and movement of people
  • Early societies in the hemisphere
  • European exploration and its effects
  • Interactions of Europeans with Native Americans
  • Colonization and comparison of colonies
  • Transatlantic trade
  • Slave trade from Africa (reasons, transport, conditions, effects)
  • Close examination and comparison of the development of specific civilizations
  • Political development and maps of countries in the Western Hemisphere
  • Issues faced by specific countries and regions in the Western Hemisphere

Technology

  • Concepts, characteristics, and real-life uses of technology
  • Knowing parts of technology devices and systems devices
  • Developing advanced keyboard skills
  • Exploring virtual environments, simulations, programs, models, and applications
  • Effective use of available grade-level technology
  • Use of tools to produce creative original works
  • Use of tools to collaborate locally and globally
  • Use of tools and devices to develop cultural understanding
  • Use of Internet to find, use, summarize, and evaluate information
  • Planning and completing a research project to solve a problem or answer a question
  • Understand negative uses of technology and ways to avoid them
  • Participation in group collaborative interactive projects and activities
  • Developing, printing, and publishing in print and digital formats
  • Evaluating content, applications, and programs
  • Digital citizenship and etiquette
  • Legal use, fair use guidelines, and copyrights
  • Procedures for safe online behavior, including use of social media
  • Responsible care of digital equipment
  • Positive attitudes toward technology for learning
  • Demonstrating openness to learning and using new technologies

By the end of fifth grade, you can expect your child to:

  • Be generally truthful and dependable
  • Develop increasing independence
  • Improve problem-solving skills
  • Acquire more-advanced listening and responding skills
  • Enjoy organizing and classifying objects and ideas
  • Be able to read and concentrate for long periods of time
  • Read complex text fluently and with good comprehension
  • Research a topic using a variety of sources, and use the features of a book (for example, the index, glossary, and appendix) to find information
  • Identify conflict, climax, and resolution in a story
  • Write an organized, multi-paragraph composition in sequential order with a central idea
  • Use problem-solving strategies to solve real-world math problems
  • Add and subtract fractions and decimals
  • Identify and describe three-dimensional shapes, and find their volumes and surface areas
  • Use long division to divide large numbers by multi-digit numbers

Fourth Grade

Kindergarten (4)

Arts

  • Perform and create artistic movements and patterns
  • Ÿ Understand the physical processes and discipline associated with dance
  • Ÿ Identify melody, rhythm, harmony, and timbre in musical selections
  • Ÿ Respond to sounds and sound patterns with body movements
  • Ÿ Improvise music with classroom instruments
  • Ÿ Listen, describe, and respond to a variety of music
  • Ÿ Read and write patterns with musical notes and rhythmic notation
  • Ÿ Read, write, and perform diatonic scales
  • Ÿ Identify some common musical instruments by sight and sound
  • Ÿ Identify and sing a variety of kinds of music and musical forms
  • Ÿ Improvise dramatizations of stories or ideas
  • Ÿ Take part in writing scripts, designing sets, and performing group dramas
  • Ÿ Create costumes and props for a performance
  • Ÿ Observe patterns in nature and works of art
  • Ÿ Identify and describe elements in works of visual art (line, color, texture, shapes/form, space, value, etc.)
  • Ÿ Create original works of visual art in various media and dimensions
  • Ÿ Express observations, ideas, or feelings through music, drama, or visual art
  • Ÿ Identify and discuss some well-known works of dance, drama, music, or visual arts and some artists, actors, writers, musicians, choreographers, or composers
  • Ÿ Describe and analyze a variety of works of art according to their elements
  • Ÿ Learn and use vocabulary of dance, music, drama, and visual arts
  • Ÿ Describe techniques for a given form of art
  • Ÿ Compare and contrast two works of art
  • Ÿ Identify purposes, effects, and influences of art
  • Ÿ Understand how culture affects art and how art reflects culture
  • Ÿ Demonstrate appropriate audience skills for live artistic performances

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and consequences of choices
  • Ÿ Benefits of health (including healthy eating, exercise, stress-management, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, and avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Ÿ Personal responsibility for fitness, stress management, health, and safety
  • Ÿ Influences of peers, media, family, and cultural pressure on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Ÿ Major body systems and their functions
  • Ÿ Nutrients and benefits of nutrients to the body
  • Aerobic and anaerobic exercise (contingent on any physical or other limitations)
  • Ÿ Prevention and transmission of disease by individual behaviors
  • Ÿ Communicable and noncommunicable diseases
  • Ÿ Ways body defends itself against germs
  • Ÿ Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Ÿ Skills to identify, avoid, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Ÿ Practices for responding to emergencies
  • Ÿ Identify safe behaviors around strangers
  • Ÿ Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • Ÿ Ways to avoid use of illegal drugs and other harmful substances
  • Ÿ Positive and negative characteristics of social groups gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Ÿ Reporting and getting help in unsafe situations
  • Ÿ Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, and weapons
  • Ÿ Development of self-confidence and self-esteem
  • Ÿ Respect and consideration for all individuals
  • Ÿ Healthy ways of getting attention
  • Ÿ Healthy ways of responding to disrespectful behavior
  • Ÿ Self-control and appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Ÿ Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Ÿ Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Ÿ Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Ÿ Skills for meeting people, making friends, and being a good friend
  • Ÿ Getting personal support from family
  • Ÿ How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in reading unfamiliar words
  • Read grade-level texts with purpose and understanding
  • Orally read grade-level texts with accuracy, expression, and appropriate rate
  • Confirm and self-correct words during oral reading
  • Identify parts of speech and their functions in specific sentences
  • Use relative pronouns, progressive verb tenses, and prepositional phrases
  • Form and use possessive nouns
  • Produce complete sentences; correct incomplete or run-on sentences
  • Correctly use words that are frequently confused
  • Use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Punctuate dialogue correctly
  • Spell grade-level words correctly
  • Consult reference materials to check spellings
  • Correctly use the English language when speaking, reading, or writing
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
  • Identify main topic, idea, or argument in grade-level text
  • Show understanding of key details in a text
  • Identify text evidence to support the author’s message or reader’s responses
  • Retell stories, including tales from diverse cultures
  • Describe main message, lesson, or moral from stories or other texts
  • Describe characters in a story and how their actions contribute to the plot
  • Determine meanings of words or phrases as used in a text
  • Describe effects and uses of words and phrases in passages
  • Describe overall structure of a passage and its effect on the message
  • Describe how parts of a story, poem, or drama build on other parts
  • Use features in the text and Internet search tools to locate relevant information
  • Explain connections between a series of events, ideas, concepts, or steps in a text
  • Explain differences between an author’s point of view and their own
  • Explain how visual images and graphics contribute to and clarify a text
  • Combine information from two texts on the same topic
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts at grade level independently and with proficiency
  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak clearly and audibly in sensible sentences
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Give and follow directions
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Ask and answer questions about key details heard in an oral or visual presentation
  • Present a report or tell a story with appropriate facts, relevant details
  • Add visual components to a speech to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts
  • Create audio recordings of stories or poems
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine word meanings
  • Use synonyms and antonyms to clarify and explain word meanings
  • Use dictionaries and glossaries (print and digital) to determine or clarify word meaning
  • Understand and use figurative language (similes, metaphors, idioms, adages, proverbs, etc.)
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Write opinion, informative, or explanatory pieces that state a topic or purpose, supplying relevant facts and reasons, and presenting a conclusion
  • Write stories that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Make improvements and needed changes to written work
  • Use transitional words and phrases to connect ideas
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including digital tools, to produce and publish writing
  • Take part in shared research and writing projects
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Create written and visual works to summarize and share information
  • Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
  • Gather information from print and digital sources and take notes
  • Write regularly for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences

Math

  • Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems with whole numbers
  • Become familiar with factors and multiples within 100
  • Generate and analyze mathematical patterns
  • Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers
  • Understand that the digit in one place is 10 times what it would be in the place to the right
  • Read and write multi-digit numerals
  • Write numbers in expanded form to show place value of each digit (Example: 26,825 = 20,000 + 6,000 + 800 + 20 + 5)
  • Round multi-digit numerals to any place
  • Compare the values of numbers using the symbols <, > , and =
  • Use understanding of place value and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic problems
  • Draw, identify, and define points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles
  • Draw, recognize, and define parallel and nonparallel lines
  • Classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles
  • Identify different kinds of triangles; recognize right triangles
  • Recognize and define lines of symmetry
  • Compare and order numbers with different numerators and denominators
  • Build fractions from unit fractions
  • Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator
  • Add and subtract mixed fractional numbers with like denominators
  • Multiply fractions by whole numbers
  • Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions
  • Create visual models to represent and solve problems with fractions
  • Express a fraction with denominator of 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator of 100
  • Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100
  • Compare decimals to one hundredth
  • Know relative sizes of units in metric and English systems
  • Convert units to larger and smaller units
  • Solve word problems with time, distance, masses of objects, money, and temperature
  • Use formulas to find area and perimeter of rectangles
  • Solve real-world problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit
  • Represent and interpret data
  • Make a line plot to show data in fractions of units
  • Understand that a circle has 360 degrees
  • Use a protractor to measure and draw angles in whole-number degrees
  • Understand and show angle measure as additive

Science

  • Earth history
  • Earth changes through plate tectonics (earthquake and volcano activity)
  • Rock evidence of Earth changes due to forces
  • Locations of earthquake and volcano activity
  • Earth changes through physical and chemical weathering
  • Natural resources and their importance and uses
  • How living things affect the physical characteristics of their region
  • Hazards that result from natural processes or extreme natural events
  • Plant manufacture of food
  • Populations of organisms
  • Food chains and food webs
  • Plant and animal structures that support growth, reproduction, and behavior
  • Plant and animal relationships in an ecosystem
  • Plant and animal adaptation and survival
  • Human interaction with the environment
  • Animal structures specialized to take in and process information
    • Definitions of energy
    • Movement and transfer of energy
    • Law of Conservation of Energy
    • Conductors and insulators
    • Relationship between energy and forces
    • Energy in chemical processes
    • Electrical circuits
    • Energy and fuels from natural resources
    • Magnets and magnetic forces
    • Electricity and magnetism; electromagnetic radiation
    • Safe use of electricity
    • Wave properties and motions
    • Transfer of digitized information
    • Properties of water
    • Changes in state of matter (evaporation, melting, condensation, freezing)
    • Water cycle
    • Floating and sinking

Social Science

  • Comparative locations and features of the state (or province, territory) in relation to the United States (or home country) and world
  • Location of one’s home in relation to other cities and features in the state (or province, territory)
  • State’s (or province’s, territory’s) location using latitude and longitude grid
  • State’s (or province’s, territory’s) borders and neighbors
  • Physical features, vegetation, and climate
  • Major cities and other human-made or cultural features
  • Studying and comparing a variety of maps of the state (or province, territory and region
  • Creating maps of physical features of state (or province, territory) and key cities
  • The state’s (or province’s, territory’s) natural resources
  • Patterns of past and present settlements and population distribution
  • Geographic factors influencing settlement and population
  • Ways the land has provided for and continues to provide for needs
  • Locations of key events in state (or provincial, territorial) history
  • Relationship between humans and the environment in the state (or province, territory
  • Rights and responsibilities of citizens in state (or province, territory)
  • State (or provincial, territorial) and patriotic symbols, traditions, and celebrations
  • Key officials and offices in state (or province, territory) and local area
  • Key elements of the state (or provincial, territorial) constitution
  • Structure of state (or provincial, territorial) government
  • Responsibilities of state (or provincial, territorial) governments
  • State (or provincial, territorial) or regional issues
  • Cultural groups that make up one’s own state (or province, territory)
  • Immigration in the state (or province, territory) and cultural diffusion
  • Contributions of different cultural groups in the state (or province, territory)
  • Key cultural and social changes in the state (or province, territory)
  • Economic activities and changes over time in the state (or province, territory)
  • Businesses and industries in the state (or province, territory)
  • State (or provincial, territorial) resources, physical and human
  • Relationships between geography and the state (or provincial, territorial) economy
  • Creating maps of products or resources
  • Trade, exports, and imports
  • Economic issues in the state (or province, territory)
  • Economic choices in the sate (or province, territory)
  • Early settlements
  • Path to status as state (or province, territory) and establishment of government
  • Structure and key concepts of state (or provincial, territorial) constitution
  • Peoples and groups who settled the state (or province, territory)
  • Key events, developments, and decisions in state (or provincial, territorial) history
  • Key people in state (or provincial, territorial) history
  • Key issues in state (or provincial, territorial) history
  • Effects of nationwide or regional events on the state (or province, territory) –American revolution, westward movement, nation-wide or regional conflicts, industrialization, slavery, environmental decisions, national security, the war on terror, etc. (U.S.A.)
  • Ways technology changes affected state (or provincial, territorial) development, communication, and transportation

Technology

  • Concepts, characteristics, and real-life uses of technology
  • Ÿ Knowing parts of technology devices and systems devices
  • Ÿ Developing advanced keyboard skills
  • Ÿ Exploring virtual environments, simulations, programs, models, and applications
  • Ÿ Effective use of available grade-level technology
  • Ÿ Use of tools to produce creative original works
  • Ÿ Use of tools to interact and exchange ideas with peers, teacher, parents, or other students
  • Ÿ Use of tools and devices to develop cultural understanding
  • Ÿ Use of Internet to find, use, summarize, and evaluate information
  • Ÿ Planning and completing a research project to solve a problem or answer a question
  • Ÿ Understand negative uses of technology and ways to avoid them
  • Ÿ Participation in group collaborative interactive projects and activities
  • Ÿ Developing, printing, and publishing in print and digital
  • Ÿ Evaluating content, applications, and programs
  • Ÿ Digital citizenship and etiquette
  • Ÿ Legal use, fair use guidelines, and copyrights
  • Ÿ Procedures for safe online behavior, including use of social media
  • Ÿ Responsible care of digital equipment
  • Ÿ Positive attitudes toward technology for learning
  • Ÿ Demonstrating openness to learning and using new technologies

By the end of fourth grade, you can expect your child to:

  • Begin to make more decisions and engage in group decision-making
  • Want to be part of a group
  • Think independently and critically
  • Have empathy
  • Show a strong sense of responsibility
  • Be able to memorize and recite facts, although he may not have a deep understanding of them
  • Increase the amount of detail in drawings
  • Work on research projects
  • Write a structured paragraph with an introductory topic sentence, three supporting details, and a closing sentence that wraps up the main idea of the paragraph
  • Use a range of strategies when drawing meaning from text, such as prediction, connections, and inference
  • Understand cause-and-effect relationships
  • Add and subtract decimals, and compare decimals and fractions
  • Multiply multi-digit numbers by two-digit numbers
  • Divide larger multi-digit numbers by one-digit numbers
  • Find the area of two-dimensional shapes
  • Have a greater awareness of fairness
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