Homeschooling

Tenth Grade

Kindergarten (10)

Language Arts

• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text

• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of primary and secondary sources

• Identify the theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development

• Identify in detail a series of events described and the relationships among them

• Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies

• Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts

• Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks

• Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several sources

• Analyze how characters develop and how this advances the theme or plot

• Analyze how a text unfolds a series of events and the connections among them

• Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text

• Analyze how the author’s structural choices, order of events, and use of time create effects, such as tension or surprise

• Analyze a particular point of view or experience reflected in a work of world literature

• Analyze how an author transforms source material from an earlier work by a previous author

• Determine author’s purpose or point of view and how rhetoric is used to advance that purpose or point of view

• Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually

• Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to contribute to the meaning or tone of a text

• Compare the point of view or claims of two or more authors on similar topics

• Identify and evaluate the argument, reasoning, and evidence in a text

• Analyze and compare various accounts of a subject told in different media

• Analyze significant U.S. (or home country) historical and literary documents

• By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency

Speaking and Listening

• Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics

• Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions

• Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions

• Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas

• Integrate into speech preparation diverse sources of information in a variety of

formats

• Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of rhetoric and evidence

• Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence

• Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and

details

• Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking

• Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations

• Adapt speech to a variety of tasks, showing command of formal English

Writing

• Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including

arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics

• Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including

arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics

• Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion

• Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience

• Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting

• Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events

• Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing

• Contribute to collaborative group writing projects

• Conduct short and sustained research projects on a topic through investigation

• Draw and cite evidence from a variety of texts to support analysis

• Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources

• Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism

• Include evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis

• Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences

(including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

English Language Skills

• Show a command of conventions of standard English grammar and usage when

writing or speaking

• Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and

spelling)

• Make effective choices of language for meaning and style when writing or speaking

• Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

Vocabulary

• Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings

• Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words

• Use relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning

• Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, or to find

its pronunciation or part of speech

• Interpret and use figurative language in context

• Distinguish shades of meaning among related words

• Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations

• Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary

Math – Geometry

• Definitions of angle, circle, point, distance, line segment, line, perpendicular and

parallel lines

• Rotations, reflections, and translations of lines in the plane

• Transformations in terms of vertices, sides, angles, circles, lines, parallel lines, line

segments, and perpendicular lines

• Rotations, reflections, and translations of polygons

• Sequence of transformations to carry one figure into another

• Angles and sums of angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal

• Congruence of two figures

• Criteria for triangle congruence

• Proving geometric theorems about lines, angles, and parallelograms

• Geometric constructions and bisections (including digital)

• Similarity

• Pythagorean Theorem and its converse

• Trigonometric ratios in right triangles

• Solving problems with trigonometric ratios in right triangles

• Trigonometry in general triangles

• Similarity of circles

• Elements of circles and relationships between them

• Constructing inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle

• Constructing tangents

• Arc lengths and areas of circle sectors

• Applying theorems about circles

• Deriving equations of parabola, ellipse, hyperbola, and center

• Proving theorems algebraically using coordinates

• Using coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically

• Proving slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines

• Finding the bisecting point on a line segment

• Computing perimeters and areas

• Explaining and using formulas for circumference, circle area, and volume of a

cylinder, sphere, cone, and pyramid

• Cavalieri’s principle

• Shapes of two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional objects

• Geometric concepts in describing objects, modeling situations, and solving design

problems

• Solving real world problems with geometric concepts and formulas

Science – Earth Science

• The universe and its stars

• The sun and its chemical processes

• Stars, their light, brightness, and movement

• Electromagnetic radiation

• Structure of and forces in the solar system

• Movements of objects in the solar system 1

• Patterns of apparent motion of the sun, moon, and stars

• Sun, Earth, and moon relationships

• Moon phases and tides

• Theories of Earth’s origin

• Earth’s history

• Geologic time, rock strata and the fossil record

• Radioactive dating

• Earth systems and their interactions

• Plate tectonics and large-scale interactions

• Structure and properties of Earth

• Minerals, rocks, and soil

• Changes in Earth’s surface

• Role of water in Earth changes

• Ocean features and movement

• Earth’s atmosphere

• Weather and climate

• Changes in climate

• Earth’s natural resources and resource use

• Renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

• Human impact on Earth systems

• Environmental concerns and conservation

Social Science – World History:  The Modern World

• Influences on the development of western political thought

• Glorious Revolution of England

• American Revolution

• French Revolution

• Influences of the revolutions of 1688-1799 on government and individual liberty

• The Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States

• Emergence of Romanticism

• Global changes brought about by European imperialism

• Causes and course of World War I

• Effects of World War I

• Russian Revolution

• Totalitarian governments after World War I

• German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s

• United States isolationism prior to World War II

• Rise of the Nazi party in Germany

• The Holocaust

• Causes and course of World War II

• Consequences of World War II

• International developments after World War II

• Causes, course, and effects of the Cold War

• The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

• The Chinese Civil War and upheavals in China

• Nationalism in the Middle East

• Establishment of Israel

• Collapse of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War

• Work of the UN, SEATO, NATO, and the OAS

• Globalization and the spread of capitalism

• Effects of information, technological, and communications revolutions

• Connectedness and cooperation of countries in the world economy

• Current conflicts in the modern world

• Global issues in the modern world

• Features of increasing globalization

• Revival and maintenance of traditional cultures in the face of globalization

• Purpose, roles, and work of some key international organizations

• Examples of global interdependence and cooperation

HEALTH AND SAFETY

• Gaining, analyzing, and applying health information

• Knowledge about and use of available health services

• Health choices and long-term consequences of choices

• Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health

• Personal health profile and plan

• Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health

• Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health

• Marketing and advertising effects on health behavior

• Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems

• Causes and effects of poor body image

• Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment

• Changes in anatomy during puberty

• Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health

• Reproductive processes; healthy development of fetus

• Consequences of sexual activity

• Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active

• of healthy relationships and dating behaviors

• Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety

• Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention

• Laws relating to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other controlled substances

• Treatment options for drug and other addictions

• Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities

• Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response

• Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other controlled

substances

2

• Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs and such unsafe situations as

date rape, sexually-transmitted disease, and drinking and driving

• Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs

• Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries

• Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs

• Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations

• Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques

• Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control

• Appropriate ways to express emotions

• Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community

• Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying

• Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others

• Getting personal support from family

Homeschooling

Ninth Grade

Kindergarten (9)

 

Language Arts

  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
  • Identify the theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development
  • Identify in detail a series of events described and the relationships among them
  • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
  • Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several sources
  • Analyze how characters develop and how this advances the theme or plot
  • Analyze how a text unfolds a series of events and the connections among them
  • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
  • Analyze how the author’s structural choices, order of events, and use of time create specific effects, such as tension or surprise
  • Analyze a particular point of view or experience reflected in a work of world literature
  • Analyze how an author transforms source material from an earlier work by a previous author
  • Determine author’s purpose or point of view and how rhetoric is used to advance that purpose or point of view
  • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
  • Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to contribute to the meaning or tone of a text
  • Compare the point of view or claims of two or more authors on similar topics
  • Identify and evaluate the argument, reasoning, and evidence in a text
  • Analyze and compare various accounts of a subject told in different media
  • Analyze significant U.S. (or home country) historical and literary documents
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
  • Integrate into speech preparation diverse sources of information in a variety of formats
  • Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of rhetoric and evidence
  • Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
  • Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • Adapt speech to a variety of tasks, showing command of formal English
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • Use relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning
  • Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, or to find its pronunciation or part of speech
  • Interpret and use figurative language in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Show a command of conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
  • Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Make effective choices of language for meaning and style when writing or speaking
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
  • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
  • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
  • Conduct short and sustained research projects on a topic through investigation
  • Draw and cite evidence from a variety of texts to support analysis
  • Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
  • Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
  • Include evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

Math – Algebra 1

  • Rational and irrational numbers
  • Quantitative reasoning
  • Real numbers and the real number line
  • Operations with real numbers
  • The distributive property
  • Exponents and powers, including rational, zero, and negative exponents
  • Scientific notations
  • Parts and structure of expressions
  • Interpreting and simplifying expressions, including radical expressions
  • Rewriting expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems
  • Rewriting rational expressions
  • Arithmetic operations on polynomials
  • Polynomial identities
  • Reading and writing equations
  • Solving equations as a process of reasoning
  • Steps in solving equations
  • Equations and inequalities with one variable
  • Using equations to solve problems
  • Interpreting and modeling solutions
  • Rearranging formulas
  • Equations with two variables
  • Linear equations in various forms
  • Quadratic equations
  • Systems of equations
  • Explaining the coordinate graph
  • Graphing coordinates and scatter plots
  • Interpreting linear graphs
  • Graphing linear equations
  • Graphing solutions to linear inequalities
  • Predicting with linear models
  • Graphing systems of equations
  • Slope of a line
  • Using graphs to solve problems
  • Pythagorean Theorem and its converse
  • Reading, writing, and explaining functions
  • Graphing functions
  • Inverse functions

Science – Biology (or Life Science)

  • Origins of life
  • Growth and development of organisms
  • Ecological relationships
  • Cycles of matter and energy flow in organisms and systems
  • Plant structures and functions
  • Plant processes (photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration)
  • Plant behaviors
  • Animal structures and functions
  • Animal behaviors, including social and group behavior
  • Cell structure and function
  • One-cell and multicellular organisms
  • Cell physiology
  • Cell chemistry
  • Diffusion and osmosis
  • Mitosis
  • Interdependent relationships in ecosystems
  • Ecosystem dynamics, functioning, and resilience
  • Cycles of matter and energy transfer in organisms in ecosystems
  • Solar energy in ecosystems
  • Human interactions with the environment
  • Biodiversity and humans
  • Environmental problems and solutions
  • Human body structure, function, and systems
  • Homeostasis and feedback systems
  • Immune responses
  • Human reproduction and development
  • Genetics
  • Natural selection and adaptation
  • Biotechnology and bioethics

Social Science – Global Studies

  • Use and creation of various kinds of maps
  • Identifying physical and human characteristics of a place
  • Major world regions
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of United States and Canada
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Latin America
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Europe and Russia
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Southwest Asia
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of North Africa
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of East Asia and Southeast Asia
  • Physical and cultural characteristics of Australia and Oceania
  • Distributions of human populations in each world region
  • Patterns of migration and settlement in each world region
  • How physical geography affects human activity in each world region
  • Adaptations of people to their environments in each world region
  • Independence and nationalist movements in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia
  • 20th century nationalist movements in Southwest Asia and North Africa
  • Patterns of industrialization and trade in the Western hemisphere
  • Revolutions, independence movements, and social changes during the Cold War
  • The spread of capitalism since the end of the Cold War
  • Role of Europe in today’s economy
  • Influence of oil and resource distributions on economies of regions
  • Changes in the economy of contemporary China
  • Persistent economic and social disparities in world regions
  • Persistent cultural conflicts in world regions
  • Varieties of religious beliefs in the contemporary world
  • Human rights issues around the world
  • Other key global issues
  • Influence of social media, TV, and the Internet on social and political movements
  • Features of increasing globalization
  • Revival and maintenance of traditional cultures in the face of globalization
  • Purpose, roles, and work of some key international organizations
  • Examples of global interdependence and cooperation

Homeschooling

Eighth Grade

Kindergarten (8)

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, personal hygiene, exercise, stress-management, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health
  • Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • Causes and effects of poor body image
  • Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment
  • Changes in anatomy during puberty
  • Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
  • Possible physical, social, and emotional impacts of decisions regarding sexual behavior
  • Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
  • Characteristics of healthy relationships and dating behaviors
  • Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety
  • Importance of regular medical assessment
  • Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • Ways the body defends itself against germs
  • Communicable, noncommunicable, and hereditary diseases
  • Evaluation of health products
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response
  • Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and unsafe situations
  • Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
  • Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
  • Understand appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Getting personal support from family
  • How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Explain the functions of verbals in general and in specific sentences
  • ŸForm and use verbs in active and passive voice
  • ŸForm and use verbs in indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive moods
  • ŸIdentify and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood
  • ŸIdentify and use simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences
  • ŸUse conventions of English correctly when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • ŸSpell grade-level words correctly
  • ŸChoose verb voice and mood to achieve specific effects
  • ŸVary sentence patterns for meaning, interest, and style when writing; avoid passive constructions
  • Maintain consistency in style and tone when writing
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
  • Cite evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
  • Identify themes or central ideas in a text and analyze their development
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Analyze how incidents or specific dialogue moves a story along
  • Analyze how a text makes connections between individuals, events, or ideas
  • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
  • Describe how a text presents information
  • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
  • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
  • Analyze the structure of a specific part of a text
  • Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and how each structure contributes to meaning and style
  • Analyze the effects of different points of view in a text
  • Determine an author’s point of view and analyze how the author treats conflicting viewpoints
  • Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic
  • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
  • Determine if a filmed or live production of a story is faithful to the text
  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different media to present an idea
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and supporting reasons in a text
  • Analyze whether an author supports a claim with sound reasoning and sufficient evidence
  • Analyze two or more texts that provide conflicting information about the same topic
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
  • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
  • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
  • Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
  • Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
  • Include evidence from literary or informational texts
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • ŸUse relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning
  • ŸUse references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, find pronunciation or its part of speech
  • Interpret and use figurative language in context
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • ŸDistinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
  • Analyze the purpose and motives of information presented in many media and formats
  • Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
  • Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • Show command of formal English language when speaking for a variety of tasks

Math

  • Work with radicals and integer exponents, including fractional exponents
  • Read and write square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations
  • Interpret and write scientific notation to estimate very large or small quantities
  • Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation
  • Analyze, solve, and graph linear equations in one variable with one solution, no solutions, or an infinite number of solutions
  • Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the slope of a graph
  • Analyze, graph, and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations
  • Write and solve real world problems leading to two linear equations
  • Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship from a graph
  • Define slope as vertical change for each unit of horizontal change
  • Graph a line, given its slope and a point on the line
  • Find the slope of a line given its graph
  • Define, evaluate, and compare functions
  • Understand that a function assigns exactly one y-value (dependent variable) to each x-value (independent variable)
  • Express functions algebraically, graphically, verbally, and numerically
  • Know that the equation y = mx + b defines a linear function with a straight line graph
  • Identify and give examples of functions that are not linear
  • Use functions to model relationships between quantities
  • Compare properties of two different functions
  • Show the decimal expansion of a rational number
  • Know that the decimal expansion of a rational number eventually repeats
  • Know that there are numbers that are not rational
  • Compare the size of irrational numbers with rational approximations
  • Find approximate locations of irrational numbers on a number line
  • Estimate the value of irrational number expressions
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems with rational numbers using multiple operations
  • Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data
  • Construct and interpret scatter plots
  • Examine and describe patterns of associations between quantities
  • Use an equation of a linear model to solve bivariate measurement data problems
  • Write and solve equations of linear relationships to make predictions involving bivariate measurement data
  • Display frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table
  • Represent probabilities of compound events with lists, tables, and diagrams
  • Find probabilities of compound events using diagrams, tables, lists, or simulations
  • Apply the multiplication counting principle to situations with a large number of outcomes
  • Understand congruence and similarity of lines, line segments, angles, and figures
  • Show properties of rotations, reflections, and translations of lines, line segments, angles, and parallel lines
  • Describe effects of dilation, translations, rotations, and reflections of two-dimensional figures using coordinate plane
  • Find sums of angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal
  • Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem
  • Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse
  • Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving the Pythagorean Theorem
  • Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find distances between points on a coordinate graph
  • Know and use the formulas for the volume and surface area of cylinders, cones, spheres, and pyramids
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume and surface area of solid figures

Science

  • The universe and its stars
  • Observation of the universe
  • Classification of celestial objects
  • Milky Way and other galaxies
  • The structure of Earth’s solar system
  • Sun, Earth, and moon relationships
  • Motions of bodies in the solar system
  • Patterns of apparent motion of the sun, moon, and stars
  • The tilt of Earth’s axis and its effects
  • Moon phases
  • Tides
  • History of planet Earth
  • Geologic time scale, interpreted from rock strata and the fossil record
  • Renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
  • Environmental concerns and conservation
    • Plant development and reproduction
    • Animal development and reproduction
    • Cell division and growth
    • Structure and function of genes
    • Changes (mutations) to genes
    • Genetic diseases
    • Genetic engineering
    • Variations and adaptations in organisms
    • Natural selection
    • Existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms in Earth’s history
    • Fossils and the fossil record
    • Similarities and differences between organisms today and organisms in the fossil record
    • Evolutionary history of life on Earth
    • Types of forces and force interaction
    • Force and motion
    • Energy and motion
    • Newton’s laws of motion
    • Electric and electromagnetic forces
    • Gravitational force
    • Gravitational forces between objects in the solar system
    • Waves (light, heat, sound), their properties, and transmission
    • Electromagnetic radiation
    • Magnetic fields; Earth’s magnetic fields
    • Transmission of digital signals as wave pulses

Social Science – United States History Through Reconstruction

  • The First Americans
  • Exploring the Americas
  • European colonization of America
  • Colonial life
  • The Mayflower Compact
  • Moves toward independence
  • Founding documents
  • The American Revolution
  • Challenges of the new government
  • Representative government
  • Drafting of the Constitution
  • Federalist Era
  • Jeffersonian Era
  • Louisiana Purchase
  • War of 1812
  • Conflicts between the North and South
  • Slavery
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • Age of Jackson
  • Westward expansion
  • Conflicts with Native Americans
  • Indian Removal Act
  • Manifest Destiny
  • U.S.-Mexican War
  • Gold Rush
  • Compromise of 1850
  • Civil War
  • Reconstruction

Homeschooling

Seventh Grade

Kindergarten (7)

Arts

Note about middle school arts curriculum: Middle-level curriculum often includes and offers experiences and study in a variety of areas in the arts. Some examples are:

      • Ÿ Animation
      • Ÿ Architecture
      • Ÿ Casting
      • Ÿ Ceramics
      • Ÿ Choral music
      • Ÿ Computer graphics and applications
      • Ÿ Construction
      • Ÿ Dance or other creative movement
      • Ÿ Digital arts
      • Ÿ Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)
      • Ÿ Drawing
      • Ÿ Film
      • Ÿ Graphic design
      • Ÿ Improvisational music
      • Ÿ Instrumental music
      • Ÿ Metal Sculpture
      • Ÿ Mosaics
      • Ÿ Sculpture
      • Ÿ Textiles and fiber art

In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such topics as:

    • Ÿ Skills of watching, listening, and responding to works of art
    • Ÿ Background and elements of particular art form
    • Ÿ Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms
    • Ÿ Principles of design
    • Ÿ Vocabulary of particular art forms
    • Ÿ Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art
    • Ÿ Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances
    • Ÿ Art history
    • Ÿ Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art form
    • Ÿ Cultural contexts and expressions of art
    • Ÿ Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art
    • Ÿ Generating questions about a work of art
    • Ÿ Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art
    • Ÿ Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art
    • Ÿ Contributions of artists to society
    • Ÿ Careers in art
    • Ÿ Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art
    • Ÿ Fostering of creativity and self-expression
    • Ÿ Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill
    • Ÿ Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques
    • Ÿ Solving design problems
    • Ÿ Use of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art
    • Ÿ Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art
    • Ÿ Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art
    • Ÿ Participation in collaborative creation of works of art
    • Ÿ Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, personal hygiene, exercise, stress-management, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, and avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health
  • Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • Causes and effects of poor body image
  • Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment
  • Changes in anatomy during puberty
  • Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
  • Possible physical, social, and emotional impacts of decisions regarding sexual behavior
  • Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
  • Characteristics of healthy relationships and dating behaviors
  • Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety
  • Importance of regular medical assessment
  • ŸMyths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • Ways the body defends itself against germs
  • Communicable, noncommunicable, and hereditary diseases
  • Evaluation of health products
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response
  • Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and unsafe situations
  • Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
  • Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and illegal drugs
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
  • Understand appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Getting personal support from family
  • How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
  • Analyze ideas and details presented in many media and formats
  • Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
  • Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • Show command of formal English language when speaking for a variety of tasks
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
  • Find and explain one or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development
  • Analyze how a theme or central idea develops throughout the text
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Analyze how elements of a story interact
  • Analyze interactions between/among individuals, events, and ideas in a text
  • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
  • Describe how a text presents information
  • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
  • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
  • Analyze the effect of specific word choices on a text’s meaning and tone
  • Analyze how a particular part of a text fits into the overall structure
  • Analyze how the form or structure of a text contributes to its meaning
  • Analyze how an author develops and contrasts points of view of different characters
  • Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic
  • Compare and contrast a text to its audio, video, or multimedia version
  • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and supporting reasons in a text
  • Analyze whether an author supports a claim with sound reasoning and sufficient evidence
  • Analyze and compare two or more authors’ presentations of the same information
  • Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal and a historical account of the same period
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
  • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Produce effective writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
  • Cite sources for information used in writing
  • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
  • Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
  • Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
  • Include evidence from literary or informational texts
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • Use relationships between words to better understand each word
  • Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, find its pronunciation or its part of speech
  • Interpret and use figurative language in context
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Explain the function of phrases and clauses and their use in specific sentences
  • Use phrases and clauses correctly in a sentence
  • Recognize and correct dangling and misplaced modifiers
  • Identify and use simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences
  • Use conventions of English correctly when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Spell grade-level words correctly
  • Choose precise and concise words when writing or speaking
  • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, interest, and style when writing; avoid passive construction
  • Maintain consistency in style and tone when writing
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

Math

  • Understand the concept and uses of statistics
  • Find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread for a data set
  • Understand and use random sampling to draw inferences about a population
  • Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical distributions
  • Understand the concept of probability of a chance event
  • Express the likelihood of an event occurring with a number between 0 and 1
  • Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data
  • Draw probability models and use them to find probabilities
  • Predict approximate relative frequencies of events
  • Find probabilities of compound events using diagrams, tables, lists, or simulation
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving statistics and probability
  • Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities
  • Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship
  • Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in proportional relationships
  • Use equations to represent proportional relationships
  • Solve multistep ratio and percent problems
  • Analyze proportional relationships to solve real world and mathematical problems
  • Understand and explain addition and subtraction of rational numbers
  • Understand and explain multiplication and division of rational numbers
  • Apply properties of operations with rational numbers
  • Convert rational numbers to decimals
  • Know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in zero or repeats
  • Compute fluently with rational numbers
  • Solve real world problems involving operations with rational numbers
  • Construct triangles from three measures of angles or sides
  • Identify and describe similarity relationships of polygons
  • Interpret and create scale drawings of geometric figures
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems that involve vertical, adjacent, complementary, and supplementary angles
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving angle measure
  • Understand and apply formulas for area and circumference of a circle
  • Understand and apply formulas for area, volume, and surface area
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving area, volume, and surface area of quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, right prisms, and cylinders
  • Describe two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures
    • Apply properties of operations to generate equivalent linear expressions
    • Add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients
    • Use variables to represent unknown quantities
    • Rewrite expressions in different forms in the context of a problem
    • Construct equations to solve real world and mathematical problems
    • Construct inequalities to solve real world and mathematical problems
    • Graph and interpret the solutions sets of inequalities
    • Identify the sequence of operations used in solving an equation
    • Define slope as vertical change for each unit of horizontal change
    • Identify the slope of a line from its graph

Science – Integrated Science

  • Features and interrelationships of Earth’s hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere
  • Fossils and Earth’s history
  • Interactions that shape Earth’s history and future
  • History and elements of plate tectonics
  • Earth composition and energy flow
  • Earth systems interactions
  • Rocks and minerals
  • Weathering and erosion from wind, water, and ice
  • Natural resources
  • Natural hazards
  • Water movements and changes in land surface and under ground
  • Renewable and nonrenewable resources
  • Uneven distribution of Earth’s resources
  • History of natural hazards
  • Geological forces that forecast natural hazards
  • Plant processes (photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration) and their byproducts
  • Chemical reactions in organisms to use food
  • Biodiversity
  • Interdependent relationships among organisms in ecosystems
  • Energy transfer in ecosystems
  • Cycle of matter in ecosystems
  • Disruptions and changes in ecosystems over time
  • Cell structure and function
  • Human body tissues, organs, and systems
  • Health and nutrition
  • Homeostasis in the human body
    • Structure of atoms and molecules
    • Behavior of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases
    • Elements and compounds
    • Periodic Table
    • Physical and chemical changes in matter
    • Chemical reactions; new substances from chemical reactions
    • Energy released or stored from chemical reactions
    • Thermal energy
    • Sound and light
    • Wave behavior
    • Changes in state of matter with variations in temperature or pressure
    • Thermal energy and the transfer of thermal energy

Social Science – World History, Medieval, and Early Modern Times

  • Disintegration of the Roman Empire
  • Byzantine Empire
  • Islamic civilizations and trade
  • African states in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Medieval Chinese and Japanese civilizations
  • Feudal system
  • Growth and spread of Christianity
  • Growth of civilizations in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Causes, course, and effects of religious crusades
  • Spread of bubonic plague
  • Ottoman Empire
  • European voyages to and conquests in the Americas
  • Rise of the Atlantic slave trade
  • Origins, features, and spread of the Renaissance
  • Growth of new ways of spreading information
  • Reformation and Counterreformation
  • Age of Discovery
  • Ideas of the Enlightenment
  • French Revolution
  • Other Revolutions in Europe and the Americas (1775-1848)
  • Rise of Imperialism
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Scientific Revolution
  • Rise of democratic thought and institutions
  • Physical geography of regions and countries during the medieval period
  • Geographic influences on major events in this span of history

Technology

  • Ÿ Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills
  • Ÿ Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools
  • Ÿ Creation of products combining text, images, sound, music, and video
  • Ÿ Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software
  • Ÿ Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data
  • Ÿ Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other collaborative forums
  • Ÿ Gathering weather information and predictions
  • Ÿ Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends
  • Ÿ Use of digital collaboration tools
  • Ÿ Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content
  • Ÿ Use of online interactive tools to communicate with learners from other cultures
  • Ÿ Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media
  • Ÿ Increasing understanding of a local or global issue
  • Ÿ Choosing appropriate digital resources to plan a project or solve a problem
  • Ÿ Choosing appropriate search engines or directories
  • Ÿ Selecting and using appropriate online applications for various purposes
  • Ÿ Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience
  • Ÿ Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions
  • Ÿ Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources
  • Ÿ Following fair use rules
  • Ÿ Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources
  • Ÿ Reporting and sharing of results or solutions
  • Ÿ Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences
  • Ÿ Recognition and avoidance of potential online dangers
  • Ÿ Safe and legal use of online sites and information
  • Ÿ Understanding of privacy issues
  • Ÿ Understanding how data are kept and available publicly
  • Ÿ Understanding safety issues related to sharing personal information online
  • Ÿ Practicing ethical and respectful behavior
  • Ÿ Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment
  • Ÿ Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedure
Homeschooling

Sixth Grade

Kindergarten (6)

Art

      • Animation
      • Architecture
      • Casting
      • Ceramics
      • Choral music
      • Computer graphics and applications
      • Construction
      • Dance or other creative movement
      • Digital arts
      • Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)
      • Drawing
      • Film
      • Graphic design
      • Improvisational music
      • Instrumental music
      • Metal Sculpture
      • Mosaics
      • Sculpture
      • Textiles and fiber art

In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such topics as:

    • Skills of watching, listening, and responding to works of art
    • Background and elements of particular art form
    • Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms
    • Principles of design
    • Vocabulary of particular art forms
    • Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art
    • Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances
    • Art history
    • Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art forms
    • Cultural contexts and expressions of art
    • Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art
    • Generating questions about a work of art
    • Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art
    • Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art
    • Contributions of artists to society
    • Careers in art
    • Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art
    • Fostering of creativity and self-expression
    • Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill
    • Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques
    • Solving design problems
    • ŸUse of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art
    • Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art
    • Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art
    • Participation in collaborative creation of works of art
    • Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, personal hygiene, exercise, stress-management, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, and avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Components of a personal health plan
  • Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • Changes in anatomy during puberty
  • ŸRole of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
  • ŸMyths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • ŸWays the body defends itself against germs
  • Communicable, noncommunicable, and hereditary diseases
  • ŸUse, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • ŸRelationship between tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and unsafe situations
  • ŸPreventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Basic understanding of first-aid procedures
  • Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
  • ŸReasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs
  • ŸEnvironmental factors that affect health
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • ŸPractices for responding to emergencies
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
  • Physical, social, and emotional impacts of decisions regarding sexual behavior
  • Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
  • Respect and consideration for all individuals
  • Understand appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Skills for meeting people, making friends, and being a good friend
  • Getting personal support from family
  • How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Interpret information presented in many media and formats
  • Identify an argument, claims, and evidence presented by a speaker
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear diction, appropriate eye contact, and adequate volume when speaking
  • ŸAdd multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • ŸShow command of formal English language when speaking for a variety of tasks
    • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
    • Cite evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
    • Find and explain the theme or central idea of a text and details that support it
    • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
    • Describe how a plot unfolds in a series of episodes
    • Analyze how a key event, idea, or character is developed in a text
    • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
    • Describe how a text presents information
    • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
    • Compare and contrast characters, settings, events, or ideas in a text
    • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
    • Analyze the effect of specific word choices on a text’s meaning and tone
    • Analyze how a particular part of a text fits into the overall structure
    • Describe overall structure of a passage and its effect on the message
    • Compare and contrast the experience of reading a literary passage with viewing or listening to the same text
    • Compare and contrast texts in different genres and forms
    • Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic
    • Describe how an author develops the point of view of a speaker in a text
    • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
    • Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to develop the topic
    • Trace and evaluate the argument and supporting reasons in a text
    • Compare and contrast two authors’ presentations of the same events
    • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
    • Recognize and follow proper usage of pronouns; correct improper usage
    • Form, recognize, and use various verb tenses and appropriate shifts in verb tense
    • Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
    • Spell grade-level words correctly
    • Consult reference materials to check spellings
    • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, interest, and style when writing; avoid passive constructions
    • Maintain consistency in style and tone when writing
    • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
    • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
    • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
    • Use relationships between words to better understand each word
    • Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, find its pronunciation or its part of speech
    • Interpret and use figurative language (similes, metaphors, idioms, adages, proverbs, etc.) and nuances in words
    • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
    • Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
    • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
      • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
      • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
      • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
      • Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
      • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
      • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
      • Use tools, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
      • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
      • Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
      • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
      • Include evidence from literary or informational texts
      • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

Math

  • Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers including decimals
  • Interpret and compute division of fractions by fractions
  • Represent fraction operations with models and equations
  • Find common factors and multiples of whole numbers
  • Understand positive and negative numbers
  • Describe real world uses of positive and negative numbers
  • Compare and order rational numbers on a number line
  • Understand and find absolute values of numbers
  • Identify and explain prime and composite numbers
  • Find and graph positive and negative numbers as ordered pairs in a coordinate plane
  • Solve real world problems with fractions and positive and negative numbers
  • Evaluate positive rational numbers with whole number exponents
  • Read, write, simplify, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers
  • Identify parts of an expression
  • Identify equivalent expressions
  • Read, write, and solve one-variable equations
  • Read, write, represent (on a number line), and solve inequalities
  • Recognize that inequalities have an infinite number of solutions
  • Apply the order of operations and properties to operations to solve equations
  • Develop an understanding of statistical variability
  • Recognize, describe, and formulate statistical questions
  • Interpret and create graphical representations of numerical data
  • Understand that a set of data has a distribution described by its center, spread (or range), and overall shape
  • Summarize and describe numerical data sets
  • Describe ratio relationships between two quantities
  • Understand the concept of unit rate
  • Use models to show and solve rate and ratio problems
  • Use ratio reasoning to solve problems involving unit pricing and constant speed
  • Find and use equivalent ratios to solve problems
  • Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100
  • Solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and percent
  • Convert measurement units when multiplying and dividing quantities
  • Find areas of right triangles, quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing them into rectangles or decomposing them into triangles or other shapes
  • Find volumes of right rectangular prisms (including those with fractional edge lengths) by packing with cubes and applying formulas.
  • Draw polygons in a coordinate plane when given coordinates for vertices
  • Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made of rectangles and triangles
  • Use nets to find surface area of three-dimensional figures
  • Solve real world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Science

  • Climate and biomes
  • Ecosystems and ecological communities
  • Human impacts on Earth systems and habitats
  • Water cycles
  • Changes and movement of water
  • Global movements of water
  • Ocean temperatures and currents
  • Role of density and salinity in ocean currents
  • Weather and climate patterns and what influences these
  • Influence of oceans on weather and climate
  • Weather predictions
  • Global climate patterns and changes
  • Biological classification systems
  • ŸStructure and function of living things
  • Cell structures and their functions
  • ŸRelationships of cells, tissues, organs, and systems
  • ŸGrowth and development of organisms
  • ŸSingle-cell and multicellular organisms
  • Sexual and asexual transfer of genetic information to offspring
  • Traits, variations of traits, and inheritance of traits
  • Animal behaviors that increase odds of reproduction
  • Sensory receptors and processes in animals
  • Plant reproduction
  • Food chains and food webs
  • Global temperature trends and effects on organisms
  • Ecosystems and ecological communities
  • Potential and kinetic energy
  • Mechanical energy
  • Simple and complex machines
  • Friction
  • Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Phases of matter and particle motion
  • Density
  • Changes in energy
  • Energy transfer
  • Relationship between temperature and energy

Social Science – From the Eastern Hemisphere to the Renaissance

  • Geographical features of the hemisphere
  • Patterns of settlement in the hemisphere
  • Patterns of movement and migration in the hemisphere
  • Interactions of geography, history, and economics in the hemisphere
  • Mapping a variety of physical and cultural features of regions or countries
  • Detailed study of the geography of one region or country in the hemisphere
  • Social hierarchies in early civilizations
  • Development of political systems in early civilizations
  • Roots of democracy in the classical civilizations
  • Decentralization of political authority in medieval Europe
  • Spread of Christianity and Church in authority in medieval Europe
  • Current political features and issues of regions and countries in the hemisphere
  • Political cooperation in the hemisphere or its regions today
  • Current types of governments throughout the hemisphere
  • Detailed comparison of the current governments of countries in one of the regions
  • Use of resources in the earliest settlements
  • Economies of the river valleys: products and activities
  • Geographical influences on historical events
  • Economic developments in early civilizations
  • Economic interdependence in the hemisphere today
  • Detailed study of the economy of one region or country in the hemisphere
  • Current cultural makeup and features of the regions or the hemisphere
  • ŸCultural contributions of past societies to current societies
  • ŸCultural interactions and issues in the regions of the hemisphere
  • Cultural diffusion in the hemisphere
  • Detailed study of the culture of one region or country in the hemisphere
  • How archaeologists have learned about past cultures and activities
  • First humans in the hemisphere and their ways of life
  • Hunter-gatherer societies
  • Development of tools and use of fire
  • Climate changes and human adaptations
  • Patterns of settlement and movement over time
  • Neolithic Revolution
  • Comparison of the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages
  • Agriculture and domestication of animals
  • The river civilizations: Mesopotamia, Indus River Valley, Yellow River Valley, and the Nile River Valley
  • Major religions and belief systems
  • Lasting influences of various belief systems
  • The classical civilizations
  • Lasting influences of the classical civilizations
  • Comparison of the Chinese and Greco-Roman civilizations
  • The rise and fall of Roman Empire
  • Development of feudalism
  • The Byzantine Empire
  • Spread of Islam
  • The Crusades
  • Afro-Eurasian trade and its effects
  • The Mongol Empire
  • The Middle Ages
  • Spread of the Bubonic Plague
  • The Renaissance (Early Modern Period)
  • Technology and transportation changes
  • Detailed study of the history of one region or country in the hemisphere

Technology

  • Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills
  • Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools
  • Creation of products combining text, images, sound, music, and video
  • Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software
  • Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data
  • Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other collaborative forums
  • Gathering weather information and predictions
  • Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends
  • Use of digital collaboration tools
  • Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content
  • Use of online interactive tools to communicate with learners from other cultures
  • Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media
  • Increasing understanding of a local or global issue
  • Choosing appropriate digital resources to plan a project or solve a problem
  • Choosing appropriate search engines or directories
  • Selecting and using appropriate online applications for various purposes
  • Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience
  • Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions
  • Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources
  • Following fair use rules
  • Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources
  • Reporting and sharing of results or solutions
  • Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences
  • Recognition and avoidance of potential online dangers
  • Safe and legal use of online sites and information
  • ŸUnderstanding of privacy issues
  • Understanding how data are kept and available publicly
  • Understanding safety issues related to sharing personal information online
  • Practicing ethical and respectful behavior
  • Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment
  • Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedures
Homeschooling

Fifth Grade

Kindergarten (5)

Arts

  • Describe, create, and perform dance movements
  • Create and perform dance movements, individually and with a partner
  • Understand the physical processes and discipline associated with dance
  • Identify melody, rhythm, harmony, and timbre in musical selections
  • Respond to sounds and sound patterns with body movements
  • Compose, improvise, and perform basic musical patterns
  • Listen to, describe, and respond to a variety of music
  • Read and write patterns with musical notes and rhythmic notation
  • Read, write, and perform diatonic scales
  • Identify some common musical instruments by sight and sound
  • Identify and sing a variety of kinds of music and musical forms
  • Improvise dramatizations of stories or ideas
  • Take part in writing scripts, designing sets, and performing group dramas
  • Create costumes and props for a performance
  • Observe patterns in nature and works of art
  • Identify and describe elements in works of visual art (line, color, texture, shapes/form, space, value [color], etc.)
  • Create original works of visual art in various media and dimensions
  • Express observations, ideas, or feelings through music, drama, or visual art
  • Identify and discuss some well-known works of dance, drama, music, or visual arts and some artists, actors, writers, musicians, choreographers, or composers
  • Describe and analyze a variety of works of art according to their elements
  • Apply evaluative skills to movies and video
  • Learn and use vocabulary of dance, music, drama, and visual arts
  • Describe techniques for a given form of art
  • Compare and contrast two works of art
  • Identify purposes, effects, influences, and historical contributions of art
  • Understand how culture affects art and how art reflects culture
  • Demonstrate appropriate audience skills for live artistic performances
  • Identify and describe careers in the arts

Health and Safety

  • Health choices and consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, exercise, stress-management, personal hygiene, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, and avoidance of accidents and dangers)
  • Components of a personal health plan
  • Influences of peer, media, family, and cultural pressure on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • ŸIdentification of foods that are sources of nutrient groups
  • Understanding and tracking calorie intake
  • Aerobic and anaerobic exercise (contingent on any physical or other limitations)
  • Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • Harmful viruses, such as the common cold, polio, measles, HPV, and HIV
  • Ways body defends itself against germs
  • Understanding of changes in anatomy during puberty
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Practices for responding to emergencies
  • Identify safe behaviors around strangers
  • Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs
  • Development of self-confidence and self-esteem
  • Respect and consideration for all individuals
  • Healthy ways of getting attention
  • Healthy ways of responding to disrespectful behavior
  • Self-control and appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Skills for meeting people, making friends, and being a good friend
  • ŸGetting personal support from family
  • How and where to get help in making health decisions

Language Arts

  • Apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in reading unfamiliar words
  • Read grade-level texts with purpose and understanding
  • Orally read grade-level texts with accuracy, expression, and appropriate rate
  • Confirm and self-correct words during oral reading
  • Identify main topics, ideas, or arguments in grade-level text
  • Explain how details in the text support main ideas
  • Identify evidence in the text to support the author’s message or reader’s responses
  • Describe theme of a literary text
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Compare and contrast characters, settings, events, or ideas from a text
  • Determine meanings and effects of words or phrases as used in a text
  • Describe overall structure of a passage and its effect on the message
  • Describe how chapters, sections, scenes, or stanzas fit together in a text
  • Use features in the text and search tools to locate relevant information
  • Explain connections between people, events, ideas, concepts, or steps in a text
  • Describe how a narrator’s or writer’s point of view influences the text
  • Explain how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning and tone
  • Compare, contrast, and analyze texts in the same genre or on the same topic
  • Find and integrate information from multiple sources to answer a question or solve a problem
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts at grade level independently and with proficiency
  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak clearly and audibly in sensible sentences
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Give and follow directions
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Summarize points made by a speaker
  • Present a spoken report with supporting facts and details
  • Add visual components to a speech to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts
  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak clearly and audibly in sensible sentences
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Give and follow directions
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Ask and answer questions about key details heard in an oral or visual presentation
  • Present a report or tell a story with appropriate facts, relevant details
  • Add visual components to a speech to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts
  • Create audio recordings of stories or poems
  • Write opinion pieces supported with relevant facts and reasons, and a strong conclusion
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces supported with relevant facts and reasons, and a strong conclusion
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including digital tools, to produce and publish writing
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Create written and visual works to summarize and share information
  • Conduct short research topics on a topic through investigation
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences
    • Identify parts of speech and their functions in specific sentences
    • Recognize and use conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections
    • Form, recognize, and use various verb tenses and appropriate shifts in verb tense
    • Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, style, and interest
    • Use conventions of English correctly when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
    • Spell grade-level words correctly
    • Consult reference materials to check spellings
    • Correctly use the English language when speaking, reading, or writing
    • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

Math

  • Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (2/5 + 7/3 = 6/15 + 35/15 = 41/15)
  • ŸSolve word problems with addition and subtraction of fractions or mixed numbers with like and unlike denominators
  • ŸCreate models or equations to represent problems with fractions
  • ŸUnderstand a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator
  • ŸSolve word problems dividing whole numbers leading to fraction or mixed number answers
  • ŸMultiply a fraction by a whole number or a whole number by a fraction
  • Find areas of rectangles with fractional sides by modeling with unit squares
  • ŸInterpret multiplication as scaling (resizing)
  • ŸExplain results of multiplying a number by a fraction greater or less than 1
  • ŸUse all operations to solve world problems with fractions and mixed numbers
  • ŸCompute and explain division of a fraction by a whole number
  • ŸCompute and explain division of a whole number by unit fraction
  • ŸDivide unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions
  • Write and interpret numerical expressions
  • Ÿ Evaluate simple expressions
  • Ÿ Analyze patterns and relationships
  • Ÿ Expand a whole number (2-50) as a product of its prime factors
  • Ÿ Analyze patterns and relationships given two rules
  • Understand the coordinate system and the meanings of the origin, x-axis, x-coordinate, y-axis, and y-coordinate
  • Graph points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems
  • Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties
  • Classify two-dimensional figures into a hierarchy
  • Understand that each place in a number represents 10 times the place to right and one-tenth of the place to the left
  • ŸKnow patterns of zeros when multiplying or dividing a number by powers of 10
  • ŸUse exponents to show powers of 10
  • ŸRead, write, and compare decimals to the thousandths place
  • ŸPerform operations with multi-digit whole numbers
  • ŸPerform operations with decimals to hundredths
  • ŸConvert like measurement units within a given measurement system
  • Use measurement conversions in solving real world problems
  • Use a line plot to display a data set of unit fraction measurements
  • Use operations of fractions to solve problems from displayed data
  • Understand concepts of volume and measuring of volume
  • Relate volume to multiplication and to addition
  • Define and describe a cubic unit
  • Use standard or improvised unit cubes to measure volume
  • Find volume of rectangular prisms by packing the prism with unit cubes
  • Know and apply formulas for the volume of right rectangular prisms
  • Solve real world problems involving volume
  • Find volumes of solid figures that are composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms

Science

  • The universe and its stars
  • Patterns and movements in the solar system
  • Earth’s orbit and rotation and the resulting patterns
  • Earth systems (geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere) and their interactions
  • The role of water in Earth surface processes
  • Rocks and minerals and their classifications
  • Earth’s topography
  • Human impact on Earth systems
  • Interdependent energy relationships in ecosystem
  • Matter and energy flow in organisms for maintenance, growth, and repair
  • Life cycles and energy cycles in ecosystems
  • Forest ecosystems
  • Food chains and food webs
  • ŸHuman impact on Earth and ecosystems
  • Observations and measurements that identify properties of materials
  • Atoms and molecules in matter and their behavior in different states of matter
  • Chemical reactions
  • Law of Conservation of Matter
  • Chemical processes in everyday life
  • Gravitational force on planets

Social Science

  • Understanding that members of a civilization share certain common characteristics, customs, beliefs, and values
  • Development of unique cultures in the early Americas
  • Description of Mayan, Aztec, Incan civilizations
  • Appreciation of the complexity of ancient societies and civilizations
  • Cultural diffusion, including the Columbian Exchange
  • Cultural comparison between regions (now the United States, Canada, Caribbean, and South America) in the past and present
  • Key cultural contributions to United States culture and the world from the other Western Hemisphere regions
  • Current issues faced by two or more Western Hemisphere nations
  • Examples of cultural cooperation among Western Hemisphere nations
  • Development and comparison of varied political systems and their development
  • Foundation documents and basic structures of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and one country in the Caribbean region and one country in South America
  • Ways groups have struggled for equality and civil rights in some of the countries of the hemisphere
  • Ways groups have struggled for sovereignty in some of the countries
  • Multinational cooperative organizations and their functions
  • Some key ideas, symbols, and values of some of the countries
  • Development of different types of economic systems
  • Comparisons of past and present economies in the regions and nations
  • Economic activities past and present
  • Trade in the hemisphere, past and present
  • Major resources, industries, products, and services of countries and regions
  • How and why products are manufactured where they are
  • Interdependence of economies of the regions
  • Geographical features (physical and human) of each of the Western Hemisphere regions
  • How first humans adapted to and modified their environment
  • Patterns of settlement in the regions, past and present
  • Adaptations of people to the physical geography and climate
  • Resources and use of resources in the regions, past and present
  • Locations of explorations in the Western Hemisphere
  • How the geography of the regions affected transportation, communication, and interaction among the people of the regions
  • Drawing maps of patterns of settlement, movement, physical features, products, trade relationships, explorations, plants and animals, etc. in the Western Hemisphere
  • First humans in Western Hemisphere
  • Migration routes and movement of people
  • Early societies in the hemisphere
  • European exploration and its effects
  • Interactions of Europeans with Native Americans
  • Colonization and comparison of colonies
  • Transatlantic trade
  • Slave trade from Africa (reasons, transport, conditions, effects)
  • Close examination and comparison of the development of specific civilizations
  • Political development and maps of countries in the Western Hemisphere
  • Issues faced by specific countries and regions in the Western Hemisphere

Technology

  • Concepts, characteristics, and real-life uses of technology
  • Knowing parts of technology devices and systems devices
  • Developing advanced keyboard skills
  • Exploring virtual environments, simulations, programs, models, and applications
  • Effective use of available grade-level technology
  • Use of tools to produce creative original works
  • Use of tools to collaborate locally and globally
  • Use of tools and devices to develop cultural understanding
  • Use of Internet to find, use, summarize, and evaluate information
  • Planning and completing a research project to solve a problem or answer a question
  • Understand negative uses of technology and ways to avoid them
  • Participation in group collaborative interactive projects and activities
  • Developing, printing, and publishing in print and digital formats
  • Evaluating content, applications, and programs
  • Digital citizenship and etiquette
  • Legal use, fair use guidelines, and copyrights
  • Procedures for safe online behavior, including use of social media
  • Responsible care of digital equipment
  • Positive attitudes toward technology for learning
  • Demonstrating openness to learning and using new technologies

By the end of fifth grade, you can expect your child to:

  • Be generally truthful and dependable
  • Develop increasing independence
  • Improve problem-solving skills
  • Acquire more-advanced listening and responding skills
  • Enjoy organizing and classifying objects and ideas
  • Be able to read and concentrate for long periods of time
  • Read complex text fluently and with good comprehension
  • Research a topic using a variety of sources, and use the features of a book (for example, the index, glossary, and appendix) to find information
  • Identify conflict, climax, and resolution in a story
  • Write an organized, multi-paragraph composition in sequential order with a central idea
  • Use problem-solving strategies to solve real-world math problems
  • Add and subtract fractions and decimals
  • Identify and describe three-dimensional shapes, and find their volumes and surface areas
  • Use long division to divide large numbers by multi-digit numbers